Отель BOTANY BEACH RESORT 4* (Таиланд, Паттайя)

НОМИНАЦИЯ: Лучший отель Азии

Отель: BOTANY BEACH RESORT 4*
Cтрана: Таиланд
Город/курорт: Паттайя
Официальный сайт отеля: http://www.botanybeach.com

Результат голосования онлайн
12.12.2017 14:23

Баллов: 114
Ланта-тур вояж
Рекомендован поставщиком Сети ТБГ:
Ланта-тур вояж
Общее обоснование рекомендации: За несколько лет нашего партнерства отель стал одним из самых популярных у россиян благодаря своей инфраструктуре и тому, что территория, на которой находится отель Botany Beach, является экологически чистым местом.
Разъяснение преимуществ отеля: Преимуществом отеля является его расположение: на берегу моря в тишине большой территории тропического сада. Также наши соотечественники ценят возможность выбора различного типа проживания, номера основного здании отеля категории супериор, однако есть отдельно стоящие коттеджи и виллы. В отделке и интерьерах номеров использованы только натуральные материалы. В отеле два бассейна, детский бассейн, джакузи, три ресторана, два бара. От отеля до центра Паттайи по расписанию ходит мини-автобус за минимальную плату.


    Фотогалерея:

  • BOTANY BEACH RESORT

  • BOTANY BEACH RESORT

  • BOTANY BEACH RESORT

  • BOTANY BEACH RESORT

  • BOTANY BEACH RESORT

  • BOTANY BEACH RESORT

5
4
Войдите или зарегистрируйтесь, чтобы получить возможность отправлять комментарии
Комментарии Оставить комментарий
Модератор аватар
Модератор (Ср, 10.03.2010 - 15:00)
Самый лучший отлель из всех, которых я когда либо была. Единственный минус - это далековато от центра, но очень приятно было возвращаться каждый раз, после насыщенного дня в городе или экскурсий именно сюда, в Botany Beach. Botany Beach - это маленький рай.
*Орфография и пунктуация авторов сохранены
http://www.tophotels.ru/main/hotel/al2825/
Модератор аватар
Модератор (Ср, 10.03.2010 - 15:01)
Не берите бунгало,там слышимость 100%,в супериор неплохо,а в виллах вообще супер.2 бассейна,2 ресторана,2 бара,сейф на ресепшн,уборка каждый день.
Берите деньги и не будете сидеть в номере и искать недостатки в отеле.Я вообще в отеле не жила,все время экскурсии...
Главное позитив и все будет хорошо...
http://www.tophotels.ru/main/viewrate/?id=173082
Модератор аватар
Модератор (Ср, 10.03.2010 - 15:01)
Отдыхаем в Паттайе с 1999 года. Botany Beach- лучший, если не считать удаленности от Паттайи, но этот минус перекроют все плюсы, которые вы здесь встретите.
*Орфография и пунктуация авторов сохранены
http://www.tophotels.ru/main/hotel/al2825/

Модератор аватар
Модератор (Ср, 10.03.2010 - 15:01)
Время отдыха: январь 2010

Тихий, немноголюдный, очень зеленый отель. Слава Богу,что там не было никаких развлечений-анимаций! Это место для уединенного отдыха!
Обещанный бесплатный WI-FI Интернет подкачал. Работал он только первые 2 дня нашего отдыха (и то ловил только на ресепшене, а в номерах еле-еле). Потом он окончательно «сгнил». Пляж при отеле вполне хороший. Широкая полоса песка, лежаков достаточно.
http://www.otzyv.ru/read.php?id=73746
Модератор аватар
Модератор (Ср, 10.03.2010 - 15:01)
Время отдыха: конец августа 2009

Достоинства:
Прекрасный отель с большой зеленой территорией, прямо на пляже. Очень рекомендую молодежи и людям по-старше. Хотя семьям с маленькими детьми занять карапузов будет на территории наверно нечем.. Хотя есть мелкий бассейн где постоянно плескалась малышня. Живет очень много русских, но никаких шумных пьянок-гулянок не было. До центра мин 15 на тук-туке (в среднем 150 бат на двоих).
Очень неплохой ресторанчик на территории, с хорошей кухней и умеренными ценами.
*Орфография и пунктуация авторов сохранены
http://www.otzyv.ru/read.php?id=64799
Модератор аватар
Модератор (Ср, 10.03.2010 - 15:01)
отдыхали компанией в ботани бич, то, что три звезды, могу зказать по уровню отеля и питанию тянет на все 5! очень понравилось,всем рекомендую, мы жили в тай-вилле, супер! размеры ванной комнаты поражают-там живые пальмы растут прямо из земли! свой бассейн, пляж частный, чистенький, не то, что в центре патайи! а какие коктейли в анасе делают в баре..., просто класс!!! в общем, не пожалеете
http://www.tury.ru/response.php?id=123488
Модератор аватар
Модератор (Пт, 12.03.2010 - 12:19)
Very good for families with kids. They have 2 swimingpools there.
Staff is very friendly and the the restaurants serve very good thai food ( prices slightly higher than in the foodstalls on the streets)
We enjoed a 2 weeks stay there at Botany. Unfortunately the hotel is overcrowded of russians.. Everywehre you here russian speaking, even staff brought a russian menue onthe first 2 days of our journey.
Enjoy the Thaimassage directly at the pool or the beach. Reasonable price of 220 Baht ( = 4 Euro ) / 1 hour!
Good shuttle bus to Pattaya city every hour! ( 50 Baht )
We ll return next year
• Liked — good for young kids
• Disliked — internet connection weak
Отель отлично подходит для семей с детьми. На территории два бассейна. Персонал очень дружелюбен и обходителен, а в ресторане готовят неплохие тайские блюда (цены немного выше, чем в ресторанах за территорией отеля). Мы жили в отеле две недеи. К нашему большому сожалению, в этот период отдыхало очень много русских. Повсюду русская речь. Первые два дня нам даже приносили меню на русском.
Обязательно попробуйте тайский массаж на пляже. Совсем недорого: 220 бат (4 евро)/час.
Каждый час от отеля отъезжает автобус до центра Паттайи (50 бат). Вернемся сюда в следующем году!
Понравилось: отличное меню для детей
Не понравилось: слабый интернет
http://www.tripadvisor.com/ShowUserReviews-g293919-d661802-r16336062-Botany_Beach_Resort-Pattaya.html#CHECK_RATES_CONT
lisa alisa аватар
lisa alisa (Пт, 26.03.2010 - 21:59)
Не понятно, сколько звезд у отеля :pilot:
Ланта-тур указывает, что «четыре звезды», а на сайтах ««Tophotels», «Турправда » и «Отзыв. Ру» - отель считается трехзвездочный, да и в отзывах постоянно пишут про «три звезды». На сайте «BOTANY» нужной информации так и не нашла, только просмотрела все отельные фото: очень симпатично, по-домашнему уютно.
Для «трех звезд» замечательный отель. Большой плюс – густая зеленая территория и собственный песчаный пляж. Из недочетов встречаются жалобы на сильную слышимость в бунгало. Также есть жалобы на слабый WI-FI Интернет.
Если мои друзья и знакомые соберутся в Паттайю, могу рекомендовать им отдых в этом отеле, (лично мне больше импонирует поездка на острова, в частности на Пхукет или Ко Самуи) :D


finikova аватар
finikova (Сб, 27.03.2010 - 11:43)
Судя по отзывам на немецких сайтах, отель не зря называется Ботани - территория там суперзеленая, пляж не как на Самуи конечно, но для Паттаи просто роскошный.
На завтрак всегда много свежих фруктов и всего остального.

Отель спокойный, анимации там нет, но кому нужна эта анимация в Патае? Кстати до города - 60 бат. В отеле много русских, - пишут наши немецкие друзья - но никакого беспокойства от них нет, все опять же тихо и мирно
DaShik аватар
DaShik (Втр, 30.03.2010 - 12:42)
 В конце июля 2009 отдыхали там знакомая молодая парочка. Отель приятный, зеленый, до города доезжали за 140 бат на двоих, в городе и развлекались, так как в самом отеле с этим был напряг.
Отель любим русскими туристами, их там почти половина. Интернет предлагали бесплатно! И он работал даже в номере. 
А вообще мне не очень нравятся фото отеля, размещенные на этой странице. У знакомых фото получились куда лучше. И этот отель я возьму на заметку, на случай если соберусь в те края. 
мамАня аватар
мамАня (Чт, 01.04.2010 - 00:43)
 Виллы в 3 звездах - это уже отлично!
Территория зеленая, использование натуральных материалов, тихо, но и до шумных мест недалеко.
Понравилось 
stervochka-m аватар
stervochka-m (Чт, 08.04.2010 - 17:40)
1) Была в этом отеле, он мне очень понравился, но имейте ввиду, что в море плавать вы не сможете, берите номер не в основном здании, мы жили в вилле, возле маленького бассейна, очень понравилось, в отеле мы не ели, на завтраки ни разу не ходили, отель очень милый и уютный, тихий. В нем мы только ночевали, а так целыми днями носились по экскурсиям и в Паттайе. При выходе из отеля через дорогу есть ресторанчик "У Уве", Уве немец, сам владелец ресторана, отличный мужик, очень вкусная и дешевая еда. На экскурсии советую ездить самим, намного интереснее и дешевле, передвигаться там проще простого, достаточно иметь карту города)Там ходят до 10 вечера тук-туки, да и такси там копейки стоят. В отеле много зелени, он находится в 15 км от Патайи, чудесное место, чтобы отдохнуть от сумасшедшего шумного города, как будто загород выезжаешь. В общем, советую. Обслуга хорошая , улыбчивые все.

2) Да мы были там в 2008г. в августе, отдохнули отлично, нам очень понравилось. Проживали в вилле. На территории два бассейна, возле вилл всегда было свободно, а вот второй бассейн ближе к морю постоянно занят. Завтраки одинаковые постоянно, но нормальные. Т.е. выбора много и каждый день можно брать что-то разное. Обедали и ужинали сначала в отеле - дороговато. Потом узнали про кафе у немца, через дорогу от отеля, ужинали там, если не выезжали в центр. Море грязноватое, тем более когда отлив. Но очень теплое. На территории делают отличный массаж. Дешевле чем в других отелях. Очень красивая, зеленая территория, дружелюбный персонал. В этом году планируем опять туда поехать.

3) Тихий, спокойный отель, мы были в декабре, детей мало, днем все разъезжаются по экскурсиям, красота! Очень отличается от турецкого отдыха, там конечно, почище, но здесь экзотика! Когда начали проезжать мимо других отелей ( если едешь на экскурсию ) поняли преимущества нашего. У нас был свой большой пляж, а в других люди ютились на узкой полоске бетона, да еще местные жители как тараканы, все загорают вместе, дурдом. От Паттайи далековато, надо ехать на Тук-Туке, но мы туда практически и не ездили, мы хотели покой. И цены на еду там подороже чем возле нашего отеля. Рядом с нами мы все отели обошли, Амбассадор - это караул, вокзал, народу тьма, лифта не дождешься. Дяденька возле нас отдыхал, очень крутой, так он 15 лет только в Ботани ездит.

4) Отель Ботани Бич находится далековато, в южной части города Паттайи - это минус. На тук-туке ехать примерно 25-30 минут, со всеми остановками, до центра города, развлечений игородского пирса, от которого уходят кораблики на острова. На такси минут 15. Но отельна ходится в более чистом месте и с собственным пляжем, что не у всех отелей. Отель окружен зеленью и кустарники выстрижены в виде зверей. Виллы стоят более дальше от пляжа, а отдельные домики и корпуса ближе к морю и бассейну . Отель Ботани Бич - это дачный домик с видом на море. Есть два бассейна, один в виде формы рыбки , в которых можно купаться в любое время дня и ночи. Во всяком случае так было в 2006 году. Были в 2008 году в отеле Паттайя Парк, но он нам не очень понравился. Ботани Бич лучше в сравнение.

5) Botany beach хороший отель утопающий в зелени, имеет собственный пляж, для нас это было важно. Находится в 20 минутах езды от Паттайи, потому молодежи в нем не много, в основном русские семейные пары, из иностранцев немцы пенсионного возраста. Немного однообразные завтраки, но я так понимаю это во всех отелях. Минусом как и плюсом может быть удаленность отеля от города, но для нас это была не проблема. Но когда возвращаешься из шумного города, а в отеле тишина и покой. понимаешь, что это плюс. Бассейны работают круглосуточно, купающихся людей можно встретить в любое время. Все зависит от цели вашего отдыха

6) Была в 2008 году в январе, в принципе в общем нормально, терртория большая, пляж свой, но немного грязный, пока больше сравнить ни с каким не могу, была в Тайланде один раз, смотря кто что любит. Там рядом есть отель Амбассадор, 40 этажей тер-рия тоже большая, народу куча. За два года, думаю, что-то изменилось в лучшую сторону.

7) Отель обыкновенный, как и все в Тайланде. Он очень удачно расположен, вышел на дорогу сел на тук-туки быстро добираешься к центру, где вечером вся тусовка, и близко к порту, с которого каждый день мы добираемся на пароме на острова.

8) Из плюсов этого отеля я бы назвал: Очень тихое и спокойное место, даже можно сказать романтическое )
Территория очень красивая, 2 бассейна тоже отличные. Выход на пляж. Номера хорошие.

Из минусов: Море не очень чистое в том месте, хотя намного чище чем на той же центральной набережной. но купаться все желучше на островах.

Достаточно далеко от центра (минут 20 на тук туке) Хотя это и не такой сильный недостаток, т.к. мимо отеля ходят рейсовые тук туки. К примеру мы жили в другом отеле 5 минутах от Волкинг стрит, но добраться до туда было дороже, т.к. приходилось платить за тук тук как за такси (не было рейсовых по близости)

Мой взгляд: когда мы собирались в Тайланд – мы сразу отмели все варианты связанные с Паттаей, однако если вас туда все же занесло(кому что - сколько людей, столько и мнений), то думаю ,это весьма неплохой вариант размещения! Как говорят многие туристы,знающие и ценящие отдых в Тайланде - в отелях там только спят, поэтому придираться к ним особо не стоит. Из плюсов: относительная чистота пляжа,если сравнить с остальной Паттаей и приближенность к порту, откуда можно уезжать на острова,минус(сомнительный)- небольшая удаленность от развлечений. Но если быть откровенной , среди четверок(сами знаете как в Тайланде выставляется звездность) можно найти и что-то более оригинальное и интересное для российского туриста. Хотя бы цепочка Sugar Palms:весьма достойна - пересмотрев огромное количество отелей, мы сделали выбор в пользу одного из отелей из нее - и остались очень довольны(но на Пхукете)!

P.S.Все отзывы были получены лично с помощью метода опроса , не были упомянуты ни на одном из сайтов, орфография интервьюеров соблюдена, личной ответственности за правдивость предоставленной информации не несу.
Анатоль аватар
Анатоль (Ср, 07.04.2010 - 15:27)
 


Отзывы туристов:

1) Хочу поделиться впечатлениями об отеле.

Для 3 звезд отель очень хороший, если сравнивать с Европой, то просто замечательный.

По приезду быстро заселили и через 15 минут мы загорали на пляже. 

В номере все необходимое есть. Не надо брать с собой никакие бутыли, кроме средств от и для загара. 

Одежду тоже можете не брать. В Тае стоит все по три копейки, а вот с вывозом могут возникнуть проблемы, т. к. можно вывозить на человека 25 килограмм, каждый последующий кг штраф 500 бат (около 500 рублей).

Еда достойная (завтрак в отеле). Ужинали либо в русском ресторане (напротив бассейна «Рыбка») или через дорогу от отеля (Австралийское кафе). Фрукты покупали в магазине «Лотус» и «Биг Си» (10 минут езды на тук-туке). 

Про море отдельная тема. Самый чистый пляж в Патайе - это пляжи в самых дальних отелях от города, каким и является Ботани Бич Резорт. Лежаков достаточно. Купались в любое время дня. 

Фотографии сами скажут за себя. 

Если в следующий раз поеду в Тай, то только в этот отель!
http://story.travel.mail.ru/story/show/285386/


2) Очень удобный и красивый отель. Обслуживание замечательное. Понравилось то, что можно купаться в бассейне и после 20-00, в любое время. Прекрасная пальмовая роща перед выходом на пляж. Русскому человеку вовсе не обязательно хорошо знать английский язык, чтобы общаться с персоналом, основные русские слова они знают и понимают. В ресторанах готовят вкусно и приемлемо по ценам. При желании, можно заказать экзотический коктейль, который тебе принесут прямо на пляж. Впечатления от отдыха самые приятные, есть желание туда вернуться!
http://story.travel.mail.ru/story/show/238865/

3) Остановились в отеле Botany beach resort. Выбирали между Garden sea weu и Botany. У меня в это же время в Garden sea weu отдыхали родители, так что была возможность сравнить.Garden sea weu больше Botany, там есть и общее здание и бунгало. Территория намного больше чем в Botany и поухоженней, правда там один, но огромный, двухуровневый бассейн, который работает до 18.00. 

А в Botany все бассейны круглосуточные. И расположение Garden sea weu немного удобней, у чем Botany. Ботани за пределами Паттайи, куда такси из Паттайи стоит 250 батт (где-то 40грн)в одну сторону. Правда в Ботани есть свой микроавтобус, который ездиет по расписанию в Паттайю за 60 батт с чел. А Garden sea weu в Паттайе, но не в центре. Пляжи у обоих отелей свои, но водичка почище в Garden sea weu.

Botany jтель 3+ понравился. Жили мы в вилле, хотя чем она отличается от бунгало мы не поняли, разве что ценой. Просто у вилл есть свой бассейн. Но в бунгало даже лучше- они находятся прям у моря и общего бассейна. В отели мы почти не находились, т. к. постоянно ездили на различные экскурсии. Питались утром-завтраками в отели (хорошие), ужинали где прийдётся, когда в Паттайе, когда в Лотусе (супермаркете), раз я кушала на пляже справа от Ботани в кафешке, про которую многие пишут, вкуснее в Тайланде я нигде не кушала!!! всё в порядке -не отравилась!)))

http://story.travel.mail.ru/story/show/220372/




Stream аватар
Stream (Пт, 09.04.2010 - 13:38)
Отель  для любителей экотуризма. Зеленый рай!
 Негативных отзывов практически нет. Хотя плохоработающий интернет в наше время это очень важно!Нужно запомнить этот вариант! Вполне располагает к выбору. Сайт выглядит крайне привлекательно, особенно в предверии летних отпусков!
eemmaa аватар
eemmaa (Ср, 11.01.2012 - 09:34)

Nowadays, Coach Purses Outlet one of eye-catching fashion designer mark is Coach Factory Outlet. There seemed to be actually a big Coach Factory Online alteration among alive living of their Coach Outlet Online metropolis and USA. The Coach Outlet Online majority of girls and ladies Coach Factory are usually attacked and Coach Outlet Online attracted by fashionable and sexy Coach Outlet. Concerning trust by the Coach Factory Outlet country people understand Coach Outlet very well what to give on today. In the USA, gucci backpack everyone has educated everyone. Coach handbags outlet and Purses have durable quality, cheap coach purses exquisite craftsmanship and expressive design to win the fashion Coach Factory industry's attention. Although it's Coach Factory Online low tone design is simple, but Coach Factory Outlet continuously from the classical Coach Factory Outlet Online American tradition for inspiration, Coach Outlet Canada and integration of the modern American style, Coach Outlet traditional and popular interpretation Coach Factory of perfect balance. It is the stylish Coach Factory Online design and durable quality of the Coach Factory Outlet and Purses that make the name Coach Factory Online known by people all over the world. Cheap Coach Purses currently are commonly worn by mostly every other female you look around. And if you too want to Discount Coach Handbags look perfect and reflect your choice of latest fashion discount coach purses, you need to buy a decent and smart Coach Outlet Online that is easily available Coach Factory Online in the Coach Factory Outlet Online. You will need to hunt around a lot of shops to get one Coach Factory you always longed for. You also feel satisfied if you get Coach Outlet Online the worth for the money you pay for. Anyway, you will find the Coach Outlet Online Store and realize its reliability and utility.

canada_goose_jakker аватар
canada_goose_jakker (Чт, 15.03.2012 - 13:31)

Funny Things about GPS Technology In the past before

canada goose jakker

the appearance of the GPS, it was interesting and common for you

canada goose sale

to see the driver driving his car while another

canada goose online

one unfolding the map and going through the map for the right

Canada Goose Jakke

direction,! What will you think of such the situation mentioned above?

Canada Goose Coats

It appears somewhat ridiculous and

Canada Goose Jackets

strange on account of the popularity of GPS systems among

woolrich parka

the people, which is a major advance in tackling the

woolrich arctic parka

problems of route finding during a trip. With the

woolrich online shop

car GPS installation, reaching the destination

woolrich outlet

and going in the right directions with safety and high accuracy

woolrich arctic parka

is possible. Michael Kors Belts Michael Kors Wallets Michael Kors Totes Michael Kors Shoulder Bags Michael Kors Satchel Michael Kors Hamilton Tote Michael Kors Grayson Satchel Michael Kors Classic Tote Michael Kors Bedford Dressy Tote On balance,

woolrich sale

GPS systems are a cohort of 27 satellites surrounding the

woolrich online

Earth. But only 24 satellite function, the other three serve

tods shoes

the storage purposes. The technology was first pioneered by the military before

tods outlet

it is widely used by the public. Adidas Jeremy Scott 3 Tongue Adidas Jeremy Scott JS Bones Adidas Jeremy Scott JS Logo Adidas Jeremy Scott Leopard Adidas Jeremy Scott Mickey Mouse Adidas Jeremy Scott Panda Bear Adidas Jeremy Scott Teddy Bear Adidas Jeremy Scott Wings Adidas Jeremy Scott Wings 2.0 Adidas Jeremy Scott Wings Sandal Adidas JS Wings Ballerina Each GPS

tods womens shoes

satellite which is powered by the Sun rotates surrounding the

tods mens shoes

Earth completes a distance of about 19,300 kilometers. The

Snapback Hats

actual trajectories of these satellites are made in order that

New Era Snapback

there are at least four satellites available in space

Snapback Caps

every time. The GPS receiver should find these available satellites, calculating its

baseball caps

distance to these satellites and

baseball hats

locating itself. Since weather

NY caps

conditions can hinter the GPS signals. Scientists are making great efforts

MLB hats

in increasing the accuracy of GPS systems. After locating itself, the

new era caps

mathematical model called trilateration is utilized to work out its

Canada Goose Outlet

distance and reduce these errors. Nike Free 3.0 V2 Nike Free 3.0 V3 Nike Free 5.0 V4 Nike Free 7.0 V2 Nike Free Run+ Nike Free Run+2 Nike Free Run+3 Nike Free TR Fit To be precise, GPS

Canada Goose Parka

systems are mainly used as guiding aid. What the user needs

Nike Free 3.0

to do is to input his destination and the rest of the work can be

Nike Free 5.0

done by GPS receiver. Canada Goose Banff Parka Canada Goose Chateau Parka Canada Goose Chilliwack Parka Canada Goose Classic Parka Canada Goose Expedition Parka Canada Goose Gloves Canada Goose Kids Parka Canada Goose Langford Parka Canada Goose Montebello Parka Canada Goose Solaris Parka Canada Goose Trillium Parka Canada Goose Vests Men Canada Goose Vests Women In addition

Nike Free 7.0

to the tracking function, GPS technology can serve many other purposes

Canada Goose Parka

. For example, people use GPS systems to deter car

Canada Goose Coats

thieves in the automobile industry. GPS technology is used by

Canada Goose Sale

private investigators so that they can monitor a cheating wife. In

Woolrich Arctic Parka

vterm of military industry, the application are

Woolrich Jacken

wide, including search and rescue lost soldiers, navigation, missile

Woolrich Outlet

and weapon guidance, target tracking and map

Adidas Jeremy Scott

creation. Canada Goose Banff Parka Canada Goose Solaris Parka Canada Goose Trillium Parka Canada Goose Freestyle Vest Canada Goose Chateau Parka Canada Goose Yorkville Parka Canada Goose Expedition Parka Canada Goose Montebello Parka Canada Goose Kensington Parka Canada Goose Chilliwack Bomber Canada Goose Snow Mantra Parka Another

Adidas Wings

application of the GPS is to protect civilian GPS guidance from being used

Jeremy Scott Shoes

by an enemy's military. the US Government regulates

Jeremy Scott Adidas

the export of civilian receivers. For more

Jeremy Scott Shoes

interesting facts about GPS, please go to Oem Car Gps. one of China's largest and

Jeremy Scott Wings

fastest growing online retailers of specialized

Burberry Scarf

automotive products! oemcargps.com is committed to providing a

Burberry Scarves

variety of car gps navigation systems.more

Burberry Sale

information please visit car dvd blog

Burberry outlet

No one like

Michael Kors Handbags

the catch the car rust in sight, which can do harm to the excellent

Michael Kors Outlet

appearance of the cars even it is a very small area on the car. If it

Michael Kors Bags

is not taken serious, the result will be unimaginable and harmful

Michael Kors Purses

because of the possibility of spreading. Now no matter

Michael Kors Purses

how small the rusted area might seem to you, Remove

Michael Kors Handbags

Rust from Car immediately with no delay. Besides, the Car Rust Removal is an acid test and takes much work, When the area of the car rust is not that large, you can approach the problem on your own. If it is

Michael Kors Outlet

large, you had better turn to a professional for help.oem car gps will give you the tips on scrubbing the rust off th Men's Freestyle Vest Men's Chateau Parka Men's Expedition Parka Men's Yorkville Bomber Men's Snow Mantra Parka Women's Solaris Parka Women's Trillium Parka Women's Expedition Parka Women's Montebello Parka Women's Kensington Parka Women's Chilliwack Bomber Youth Expedition Parka Men's Banff Parka

outletonline1 аватар
outletonline1 (Вс, 01.04.2012 - 13:42)

Customers are not only interested in handbags and purses, but also fond of?shoes and jewelry which is sold at the Coach Outlet.
Coach Factory Outlet Online offer New Signature bags which is a the newest cool creation from Coach. The look is positively upscale. Gorgeous lightly textured black leather, beautiful for any season.
coach factory outlet,Prada, Hermes, Gucci and so on. With these kind of models, Louis vuitton is definitely the most made welcome make which will will become the category foremost task.
Coach Outlet handbags You can not just save your cash but also your time inside a convenient way to obtain the exact same bags product and do not be concerned the shippment of one's products.

sudou аватар
sudou (Пт, 06.04.2012 - 07:44)

Above a steel awning shaped like a christian louboutin uk shoe in profile, with a red underside to boot, pink orchids sprout from the coral-stone facade. Still more orchids project from a wall in the entry gallery.christian louboutin returned to Paris in 1981, where he assembled a portfolio of drawings of elaborate high heels. In late 1988, tiffany uk released her second album, Hold an Old Friend's Hand, which was less successful than her first album. Although it did not feature any number one hits, the song 'All This Time' made the top ten.Despite the critical validation,tiffanys and a record-breaking turnout for her college campus tour,a record deal with a shady, now defunct company and the teen-pop 'stigma' attached to her name hindered the album's potential success. Here she sold flannel blazers, straight linen skirts, sailor tops, long jersey sweaters and skirt-jackets.With her financial situation precarious in the early years of her design career, chanel uk purchased jersey primarily for its low cost.chanel outlet returned to Paris in 1953to find the Paris fashion scene obsessed with Christian Dior and the very feminine look for which he alone is given credit, the 'New Look.' Coco Chanel responded brilliantly to the challenge; she recognized that the couture market had changed and she needed to catch-up. slightly unbuttoned, or totally cuffed straight down depending in your mood for that day. There are so burberry uk 5899 Classic Short Boots Chocolate many possibilities for this boot that you just will want your child to personal a pair.In 2006 Rose Marie Bravo, who as Chief Executive had led burberry to mass market success, retired. She was replaced by current CEO Angela Ahrendts.first began selling online in the US, followed by the UK in October 2006, and the rest of the EU in 2007. The interplay of light and cut gucci uk can render effects that underscone the character of the architecture and create individual atmospheres.November 1997 also proved to be a successful year as acquired a watch licensee, Severin Montres, and renamed it gucci belt Timepieces. Thinking silver and gold ornaments are a little bit ordinary? Why not try ralph lauren uk Jewelry. With charming colors and delicate shapes.polo ralph lauren uk are inspired by the classic Disney character. They are the symbol of timeless and romantic. Perfect for glamorous nights out! Amid widespread speculation in the fashion press about Ford's heir, louis vuitton sac company announced in March 2004 that he would be replaced by a team of younger designers promoted from the ranks of the company's staff.louis vuitton later expanded its presence in Asia with the opening of a store in Taipei, Taiwan in 1983 and Seoul, South Korea in 1984. In the following year, 1985, the Epi leather line was introduced.

woolrich outlet аватар
woolrich outlet (Пт, 13.04.2012 - 12:21)

The New York Knicks beat Philadelphia 76ers tonight! With the win, the resurgent Knicks (23-24) moved to within three games of the 76ers for the Atlantic Division lead with 19 games left in the season. Michael Kors Handbags
Michael Kors Outlet
Michael Kors Bags
Michael Kors Purses The win was also critical in that it clinched the season series against Philadelphia in the event of a tie-breaker.
Michael Kors Outlet Online
Michael Kors Sale
MK Bags , and the New York Knicks won the game! Michael Kors Purses Michael Kors Handbags Michael Kors Outlet , it's amazing, isnn't it? 76ers coach Doug Collins said
Michael Kors Online Outlet
Michael Kors Bags
Michael Kors Wallets wherever the Knicks finish, Jeremy Scott Adidas Jeremy Scott Shoes Jeremy Scott Wings they're going to give someone a lot of trouble in the first round. "When you start looking at it, Canada Goose Outlet Canada Goose Parka Canada Goose Coats the cream of the crop is Miami and Chicago," Collins said, "and I guarantee you Miami and Chicago sure doesn't want to see the New York Knicks at 7 or 8 (seeds). . . . Burberry Scarf
Burberry Scarves
Burberry Sale
Burberry outlet There are teams out there saying,
Michael Kors Bag
Michael Kors Tote
Michael Kors Handbags Outlet I don't want to play them." Mike Woodson's NBA career began as a rookie with the Knicks in 1979-80 and while the former first round pick spent just one season in New York, Mulberry Uk
Mulberry Bag
Mulberry Outlet
Mulberry Alexa he did play for the franchise's all-time greatest coach, Red Holzman. Snapback Hats New Era Snapbacks Snapback Caps Woodson has now joined Holzman in the record books matching the best start after a coaching change with a 5-0 mark. baseball caps baseball hats NY caps MLB hats new era caps Holzman guided the Knicks to five straight wins after he took over for the fired Willis Reed in November 1978. Woolrich Outlet Woolrich Arctic Parka Woolrich Online Woolrich Sale It was Holzman's second stint as Knicks head coach. Quote To Note: "I learned that my team is not going to buckle Woolrich Parka Woolrich Arctic Parka Woolrich Online Shop and I honestly believe that they believe they can win any game that they play now." ¡ªKnicks interim coach Mike Woodson Woolrich Arctic Parka Woolrich Jacken Woolrich Outlet after his team won its fifth straight. The New York Knicks get to play another game against the Toronto Raptors on Friday night (March 23), Canada Goose Jakker Canada Goose Online Canada Goose Sale giving the team a shot at running the current win streak to six games. Canada Goose Jakke Canada Goose Coats Canada Goose Jackets While the Raptors are certainly a team in disarray, this isn't a game that the Knicks should take lightly.
Canada Goose Parka
Canada Goose Coats
Canada Goose Sale After all, the Raptors have beaten the Knicks once already this season, showing that the team is good enough to possibly do it again. The Atlantic division standings have become even tighter, Nike Free 3.0 Nike Free 5.0 Nike Free 7.0 especially after the Knicks went into Philadelphia and took down the 76ers on Wednesday (March 21). Nike Free 3.0 V2 Nike Free 3.0 V3 Nike Free 5.0 V4 Nike Free 7.0 V2 Nike Free Run+ Nike Free Run+2 Nike Free Run+3 Nike Free TR Fit Now the Knicks trail Philadelphia by just three games and I think that New York could still claim the division. I think that the best chance for the Knicks to go deep into the 2012 Eastern Conference Playoffs is to win the Atlantic and take that No. 4 seed. It would give the team home court advantage in the first round and likely avoid the Miami Heat until the Eastern Conference Finals. But what New York has to do is beat the weaker teams like Toronto and not slip up when the playoffs are on the line. Keeping with the current game plan, the Knicks need strong performances from the starters and the bench. Adidas Jeremy Scott Adidas Wings Jeremy Scott Shoes The team did just beat the Raptors by 19 points on March 20, but has got to keep the pressure on defense going. I think that the best way to put down the Raptors again is to keep the ball moving, play strong help-defense and to get great contributions from Steve Novak and J.R. Smith once again. In the next three games, the Knicks play the Raptors, Detroit Pistons and Milwaukee Bucks.
Mulberry Bags
Mulberry Outlet
Mulberry Alexa
Mulberry Bayswater
Mulberry Handbags
Mulberry Sale Those are three very winnable games that could move the team close to the Boston Celtics and 76ers in the Atlantic division. Unfortunately, the Knicks don't get to play Philadelphia again this season, so the team just needs to win games and hope for a little help from the 76ers' opponents. I am a little worried about Jared Jeffries staying healthy, Michael Kors Factory Outlet Michael Kors Handbag Michael Kors Tote because he is extremely important to this team. Hopefully he is ready to go again and that he can provide that spectacular defense that has helped the team get back on the winning track. Tods Shoes Tods Outlet Tods Womens Shoes Tods Mens Shoes With Carmelo Anthony and Amare Stoudemire leading the way again, I expect the Knicks to make easy work of the Raptors and push the record back to . 500 overall on Friday night

qinger аватар
qinger (Пнд, 30.12.2013 - 12:03)

A New York

Coach Factory Outlet

Times report on the September 11, 2012, attack that killed four Americans

Coach Factory Outlet

-- including Ambassador J. Christopher Stevens -- in Benghazi, Libya,

Coach Outlet

calls into question much of what Republicans accusing the Obama administration of a cover-up have said about the incident.The three

Coach Online Outlet

main points of contention have been whether the attack was planned, whether it was sparked by an anti-Muslim video, and whether al Qaeda was involved.

Coach Factory Outlet

However, the Times says, the administration's version, focusing on outrage over the

Coach Outlet Store

inflammatory video, and first delivered by then-ambassador to the U.N.

Coach Outlet Store

Susan Rice on Sunday morning talk shows five days later, isn't exactly right,

Coach Outlet Online

either."The reality in Benghazi was different,

Chanel Handbags

and murkier, than either of

Coach Handbags Outlet

those story lines suggests. Benghazi was not infiltrated by Al Qaeda,

Louis Vuitton Outlet Online

but nonetheless contained grave local threats to American interests.

Coach Outlet Store

The attack does not appear to have been meticulously planned, but neither was it spontaneous

Coach Factory Online

or without warning signs," according to David D. Kirkpatrick's article in the Times.

Louis Vuitton Outlet

It's a conclusion that CNN has drawn in its previous

Coach Factory Outlet

reporting.The attack at the Benghazi diplomatic compound has become

Coach Factory Outlet

a political flashpoint in a long-running battle between the White House and Republicans,

Coach Outlet Store Online

who accuse the Obama administration of not bolstering security before the attack, of botching the response to it and of misleading

Coach Bags Outlet

the public for political gain less than two months before the November election.The GOP suggests the administration removed specific terror references and stuck to the explanation advanced by Rice

True Religion Outlet

-- later proved untrue -- that the attack was the result of spontaneous demonstrations over the U.S.-produced film "Innocence of Muslims,"

True Religion

which contained scenes some Muslims

True Religion Outlet

considered blasphemous.The White House and its allies in Congress have said

Michael Kors Handbags Outlet

any confusion and

Michael Kors Outlet Store Online

conflicting information in the

Michael Kors Bags Outlet

early hours and days after the assault stemmed from the "fog of war,"

Michael Kors Outlet Online

not any deliberate effort to mislead the public.

helloglory111 аватар
helloglory111 (Вс, 12.01.2014 - 10:41)
|PROLOGUE - AMONG the books which afford us an insight into he | popular religious thought | of the middle ages, none holds a more important place than the Legenda Aurea or| Golden Legend. The book | was compiled and put into form about the year 1275 by Jacobus de Voragine,| Archbishop of Genoa, who | laid under contribution for his purpose the Lives of the Fathers by S. Jerome, the| Ecclesiastical History of Eusebius, | and other books of a like kind; while for the lives of the saints more nearly| approaching his own age |he appears to have industriously collected such legends as he could meet | with, whether in manuscript | or handed down by oral tradition. All persons living in later times have been| deeply indebted to the man | who thus embodied for their benefit and instruction a picture of the mental attitude| of the age in which he |lived. If the study of it be not absolutely essential, it may safely be averred that it will | be most helpful and profitable, |o all those who care to realise to themselves the faith of their forefathers, and | in no small degree will |it enable them more fully to understand the inspiration of the men whose faith | found its expression in |the glories and mysteries of Gothic ecclesiastical architecture. To those who can | pace the aisles of a great |cathedral or priory or abbey church, or even tread the humbler stones of an ancient | parish church, without being |touched with a sense of reverent wonder, the pages of The Golden Legend will | appeal in vain. Its perusal |will strike no responsive chord in their hearts. But to those who, whatever may | be their creed, never set |foot in those stone-written records of the past without a feeling of awe and | veneration, mingled with |an earnest longing to understand something of the spirit which breathes forth | from them, and a desire |to know what it was that so wrought in the minds of their makers as to produce the | Music Gallery at Exeter, |the South Porch at Lincoln, the Galilee at Durham, the stained glass at York, the | East Window at Wells, |and a thousand other marvels, to say nothing of the greater glories that await us in the | magnificent churches of France, |which even after centuries of destruction, neglect, and ill-usage still | | | impress us with wonder and |admiration,-the histories of The Golden Legend will be a new revelation of | inestimable value. The corbels | of roof and cloister vaulting which look down on us with quaint and tender| beauty, and the strange and |sometimes monstrous or demoniacal gargoyles of the exteriors, will have a newer | and fuller meaning if we |allow ourselves thoroughly to enter into the spirit of the book before us. | We shall seem to hear the majestic | roll of the solemn chants of Advent and the rejoicings of Christmas, the| penitential pleadings of the |Lenten season and the triumphal songs of Easter, as we read the eloquent | passages devoted to those |sacred seasons, even though the style be such as modern ears are little accustomed | to, and therefore may sometimes |appear, especially on a first reading, as more or less rugged and obscure. | Lovers of the picturesque |can scarcely fail to be charmed with such wonderful tales as those of the | childhood of Moses and the |history of Pontius Pilate, which the author frankly sets down as 'apocriphum'; | while the folk-lorist will |find a rich field to interest him in a territory hitherto but little explored. | In such histories as that of | S. Brandon we dwell for a while in a veritable wonderland. The lives of S. Jerome,| S. Macarius, S. Anthony, | and S. Mary of Egypt, and other saints of the desert, read like the echoes of | another world, so far |removed are they from modern habits of thought, faith, and practice; while those of S. | Francis, S. Dominic, and S |Thomas of Canterbury bring before our eyes the life of the middle ages hardly | less vividly than the tales |of the Gesta Romanorum or the everliving creations of Geoffrey Chaucer. Verily | there is a plentiful harvest |for those who care to reap. Having read every page very carefully six times, with | unabated interest, in the course |of editing two editions, I can testify to the attraction the book has for one who | loves the wondrous records of old days. |Though it does not appear to have been among the earliest of printed books, the Legenda Aturea | was no sooner in type |than edition after edition appeared with surprising rapidity. Probably no other book was more | frequently reprinted between |the years 1470 and 1530 than the compilation of Jacobus de Voragine. And while | almost innumerable editions | appeared in Latin, it was also translated into the vulgar tongue of most of the| nations of Europe, usually | with alterations and additions in accordance with the hagiological | preferences of the different |nationalities. It is with an early French translation that we are chiefly concerned | of which Caxton's version | is a close rendering. The French book in question is a large folio volume of four| hundred and forty-three |leaves, printed in double columns, with forty-four lines to the page. Two copies | of it only are known in this | country, one in the British Museum, and the other in Cambridge University | Library. There may of course |be copies lurking in foreign libraries, but I have not been able to hear of any. | It is without any indication |of place of printing, date, or printer, and until quite lately these particulars had | baffled the researches and | conjectures of bibliographers; but latterly Mr. R. Proctor of the British| Museum has succeeded in | identifying the type as proceeding from the press of Peter Keyser, a rival of| Anthony Vernard at Paris. | It contains the lives of many French saints who are not included in the work of | Voragine, notably those |of S. Genevieve and S. Louis. Convincing proof that this is the book referred to by | Convincing proof that this |is the book referred to by Caxton in his preface as 'a legende in frensshe,' is | afforded by the fact that |where the printer has left gross misprints uncorrected in his text, the translator has | blindly followed him without | any attempt to make sense of them. The most curious instance of this occurs| in the explanation of the | supposed etymology of the name of S. Stephen. The French printer has turned the| Old French which should |have read 'fames venues,' (femmes veuves) into 'seine venues,' which Caxton | attempts to translate by 'hole | comen' (whole come), regardless of the fact that it has no meaning whatever. It| has rarely been attempted | to clear the present text of obscurities by any alteration, on principle; but in this| instance, for the meaningless |words 'hole comen,' those of 'widow women' have been substituted in accordance | with the Latin, which Caxton |seems never to have troubled himself to refer to. Again, in the life of S. | Genevieve the French version |has the typographical error of "a name' for 'a navire,' which the translator | simply renders 'at name,' |and this in later editions becomes 'at none' without making any better sense. This | has been altered to 'by ship' |as being the obvious meaning. The text has been amended in one or two| | | other instances where a slight | alteration made a passage intelligible; but, as I have said, there has been no | attempt to clear obscurities | generally or to interfere with the translator's language.| The observant reader can |scarcely fail to note the difference between the style of the Bible histories, | which I take it come from | the 'Legend in English,' which Caxton mentions in his preface, and that of the| translator's work, greatly to | the advantage of the former. The summary is in truth done with a master's hand. The| life of S. Thomas of Canterbury | is again a specimen of vigorous English clearly written, and is probably also| taken from the 'Legend in English.' |Though Caxton speaks of himself as the translator, and we have personal glimpses of him in the anecdotes | he relates in 'The | Circumcision of our Lord, 'The History of David,' and 'The Life of S. Austin,' it is hardly| to be supposed that |he could have been at the labour of translating the whole book. He appears indeed to have | employed some one whose |knowledge of French must have been considerably less than that we are willing to | credit him with, considering | his long residence in French Flanders. Colour is also given to the suggestion| that he availed himself |of extraneous help in the work of translation by his special assertion at the end of the | life of S. Roch: 'which lyfe | is trans- lated oute of latyn into Englysshe by me, William Caxton.'| It may be remarked as a curious | bibliographical and historical coincidence, that while Wynken de Worde| was engaged in printing the |last of the Old English editions of The Golden Legend in London, William | Tyndale was busily occupied | at Cologne trying to get into type the first of the unnumbered editions of the| English New Testament. The old |order giveth place to the new. THE GOLDEN LEGEND | THE holy and blessed | Doctor S. Jerome saith this authority: Do alway some good work, to the end that| the devil find thee |not idle. And the holy Doctor S. Austin saith in the book of the labour of monks that, no | man strong or mighty to |labour ought to be idle. For which cause, when I had performed and accomplished| divers works and histories |translated out of French into English at the request of certain lords, ladies, and | gentlemen, as the story |of the Recuyel of Troy, the Book of the Chess, the History of Jason, the History of | the Mirror of the World, |the fifteen books of the Metamorphoses, in which be contained the Fables of | Ovid, and the History |of Godfrey of Boulogne in the Conquest of Jerusalem, with other divers works and | books, I ne nyste what |work to begin and put forth after the said works tofore made; and forasmuch as idleness | is so much blamed, as |saith S. Bernard the mellifluous Doctor, that, she is mother of lies and stepdame of | virtues, and that it is she | that overthroweth strong men into sin, quencheth virtue, nourisheth pride, and maketh| the way ready to go | to hell. And John Cassiodorus saith that the thought of him that is idle, thinketh on none| other thing but on lickerous | meats and viands for his belly. And the holy S. Bernard, aforesaid, saith in an| epistle: When the time shall |come that it shall behove us to render and give account of our idle time, what | reason may we render, or what | answer shall we give when in idlenesse is none excuse? And Prosper saith| that, whosoever liveth in idleness, |liveth in manner of a dumb beast. And because I have seen the authorities | that blame and despise |so much idleness, and also know well that it is one of the capital and deadly sins, | much hateful unto God, |therefore I have concluded and firmly purposed in myself no more to be idle, but will | apply myself to labour and |such occupation as I have been accustomed to do. And forasmuch as S. Austin, | aforesaid, saith upon a psalm |that, good work ought not to be done for fear of pain, but for the love of | righteousness, and that it |be of very and sovereign franchise, and because me seemeth to be a sovereign | weal to incite and exhort |men and women to keep them from sloth and idleness, and to let to be understood to | such people as be not lettered, |the nativities, the lives, the passions, the miracles, and the death of the holy | saints, and also some other |notory deeds and acts of times past, I have submised myself to translate into | English the legend of saints | which is called Legenda Aurea in Latin, that is to say the Golden Legend. For in| like wise as gold is most |noble above all other metals, in like wise is this Legend holden most noble above all | other works. Against me, | here might some persons say that, this legend hath been translated tofore, and truth it| is. But forasmuch as I | had by me a legend in French, another in Latin, and the third in English, which varied| in many and divers places, | and also many histories were comprised in the other two books which were not in the| English hook, and therefore | I have written one out of the said three books, which I have ordered otherwise| than the said English Iegend | is, which was before made, beseeching all them that shall see or hear it read, to| pardon me where I have erred |or made fault, which, if any be, is of ignorance and against my will, and submit | it wholly of such as can |and may, to correct it, humbly beseeching them so to do, and in so doing they shall | deserve a singular laud and |merit, and I shall pray for them unto Almighty God, that he of his benign grace | reward them, etc., and | that it profit to all them that shall read or hear it read, and may increase in them virtue,| and expel vice and sin, |that by the example of the holy saints they amend their living here in this short life, that | by their merits they and |I may come to everlasting life and bliss in heaven. Amen. | And forasmuch as this said |work was great and over chargeable to me to accomplish, I feared me in the | | | beginning of the translation | to have continued it because of the long time of the translation, and also in| the imprinting of the same, | and in manner half desperate to have accomplished it, was in purpose to| have left it after that I |had begun to translate it, and to have laid it apart, ne had it been at the instance and | request of the puissant, noble, | and virtuous Earl, my lord William, Earl of Arundel, which desired me to| proceed and continue the said |work, and promised me to take a reasonable quantity of them when they were | achieved and accomplished, |and sent to me a worshipful gentleman, a servant of his, named John | Stanney which solicited me, | in my lord's name, that I should in no wise leave it, but accomplish it, promising| that my said lord should |during my life give and grant to me a yearly fee, that is to wit, a buck in summer and| a doe in winter, with which |fee I hold me well content. Then at contemplation and reverence of my said lord I | William Caxton, his poor |servant, and that it like him to remember my fee. And I shall pray unto Almighty | | | God for his long life and | welfare, and after this short and transitory life to come into everlasting joy in| heaven; the which he send |to him and me and unto all them that shall read and hear this said book, that for the | love and faith of whom all |these holy saints have suffered death and passion. Amen. | And to the end each history, |life and passion may be shortly found, I have ordered this table following, | where and in what leaf |he shall find such as shall be desired, and have set the number of every leaf in the margin: | OF THE ADVENT OF OUR LORD | The time of the Advent or coming of our Lord into this world is hallowed in Holy Church the| time of four weeks, in |betokening of four divers comings. The first was when he came and appeared in human nature and | flesh. The second is | in the heart and conscience. The third is at death. The fourth is at the Last Judgment. The| last week may unnethe be |accomplished: for the glory of the saints which shall be given at the last coming | shall never end nor finish. |And to this signifiance the first response of the first week of Advent hath four | verses to reckon. Gloria patri | et filio, for one, to the report of the four weeks, and how it be that there be | four comings of our Lord, |yet the Church maketh mention in especial but of twain, that is to wit, of that | | | he came in human nature to the |world, and of that he cometh to the Judgment and Doom, as it appeareth in | the office of the Church |of this time. And therefore the fastings that be in this time, be of gladness and of joy | in one part, and that other part |is in bitterness of heart. Because of the coming of our Lord in our nature | human, they be of joy | and gladness. And because of the coming at the Day of Judgment, they be of bitterness| and heaviness. As touching |the coming of our Lord in our bodily flesh, we may consider three things of this coming, that is to | wit, the opportunity, the |necessity and the utility. The opportunity of coming is taken by the reason of the man | that first was vanquished |in the law of nature of the default of the knowledge of God, by which he fell into | evil errors, and therefore | he was constrained to cry to God: Illumina oculos meos, that is to say, Lord, give | light to mine eyes. After, |came the law of God, which hath given commandment in which he hath been | overcome of impuissance, as |first he hath cried: There is none that fulfilleth but that commandeth. For there | he is only taught, but not |delivered from sin, ne holpen by grace, and therefore he was constrained to cry: There | lacketh none to command, | but there is none that accomplished the commandment. Then came the Son of| God in time when man | was vanquished of ignorance and impuissance. To that if he had so come tofore,| peradventure man might | say that by his own merits he might have been saved, and thus he had not been bound| to yield thanks to God. | The second thing that is shown us of this coming is the necessity by reason of the time,| | | of which the apostle Paul |speaketh, ad Galatas the fourth chapter: At ubi venit plenitudo temporis, when | the plentitude or full time |of the grace of God was ordained, then he sent his Son that was God and Son of | the virgin and wife which |was made subject to the law. To that, that they be subject to the law he bought them | again, and were received |sons of God by grace of adoption. Now saith S. Austin that many demand why | he came not rather. He answered |that it was because that the plentitude of time was not come, which should | come by him, that all |things were ordained and made, and after when this plentitude of time came, he came | that of time past hath delivered |us, to that we shall bedelivered of time, we shall come to him whereas no | time passeth, but is perpetuity. |The third thing that is showed to us of this coming is the utility and profit that | cometh for the cause of |the hurt and sickness general. For sith the malady was general, the medicine must be | general, whereof saith S. | Austin that: Then came the great medicine, when the great malady was through all| the world. Whereof | the holy Church remembereth in the seven anthems that be sung before the nativity of our| Lord, where the malady | is showed in divers manners, and for each demandeth remedy of his malady of| prisoner out of the prison |that sitteth in darkness and shadow of death. For they that have been long in prison | and dark places may not |see clearly, but have their eyes dim. Therefore, after we be delivered from prison, it | behoveth that our eyes be made |clear and our sight illumined for to see whither we should go, and | therefore we cry in the fifth | anthem: O Oriens splendor lucis eterne, veni et illumina sedentes in tenebris et| umbra mortis, O Orient |that art the resplendour of the eternal light, come and illumine them that sit in | darkness and shadow of death, | and if we were taught, lighted, unbound, and bought, what should it avail to us| but if we should be saved? | And, therefore, we require to be saved, and therefore we say in the two last anthems,| the sixth and the seventh; | when we cry: O Rex gentium, veni et salva hominem quem de limo formasti, O thou | King of peoples come |and save the man that thou hast formed of the slime of the earth; and in the seventh: O | Emmanuel rex et legifer |noster veni ad saluandum nos, domine deus noster, O Emmanuel that art our King, and | bearer of our law, our | Lord, our God, come and save us. The profit of his coming is assigned of many saints in| many manners, for Luke |saith in the fourth chapter that our Lord was sent and came to us for seven profits, | where he saith: The |Spirit of our Lord is on me, which he rehearseth by order; he was sent for the comfort of | the poor, to heal them that |were sick in sin, to deliver them that were in prison, to teach them that were | uncunning. To forgive sins, |to buy again all mankind. And for to give reward to them that deserve it. And S. | | | Austin putteth here three |profits of his coming and saith: In this wretched world what aboundeth but to be | born to labour and to die. | These be the merchandise of our region, and to these merchandises the noble| merchant Jesus descended. | And because all merchants give and take, they give that they have and take that| they have not; Jesu Christ |in this merchandise gave and took, he took that which in this world aboundeth, that | is to wit, to be born to | labour and to die, he gave again to us to be born spiritually, to rise and reign perdurably.| And he himself came |to us to take villanies and to give to us honour, to suffer death and to give us life, to take | poverty and to give us glory. |S. Gregory putteth four causes of the profit of his coming: Studebant omnes | superbi de eadem stirpe progeniti, | prospera vitæ præsentis appetere, adversa devitare, opprobria fugere, | gloriam sequi: They of |the world, in their pride descended of the same lineage, studied to desire the | prosperity of this present | life, to eschew the adversities, to flee the reproofs and shames and to ensue the glory| of the world. And our Lord |came incarnate among them, asking and seeking the adversities, despiting the | prosperities, embracing villanies, |fleeing all vain glory. And he himself which descended from glory, came, and | he being come, taught new | things, and in showing marvels suffered many evils. S. Bernard putteth other| causes, and saith that, we | travail in this world for three manner of maladies or sickness, for we be lightly| deceived, feeble to do well, | and frail to resist against evil. If we entend to do well we fail, it we do pain to| resist the evil, we be | surmounted and overcome; and for this the coming of Jesu Christ was to us necessary. To| that he inhabiteth in us, |by faith he illumineth our eyes of the heart, and in abiding with us he helpeth us in our | malady, and in being with us |he defendeth our frailty against our enemies. Of the second coming which | shall be at the last Judgment |two things be to be seen, that is to wit, that which cometh before the Judgment, and that which | shall be at the Judgment. |As for the first, three things shall be tofore the Judgment. First, the terrible | confusion of signs and tokens. |Secondly, the malice and deceit of Antichrist, and the third, of vehement and | marvellous operation of the fire. |As touching the signs, S. Luke saith in the twenty-fifth chapter: Erunt signa in | sole, luna et stellis, etc. |There shall be great signs in the sun, in the moon, and in the stars, and in the earth | oppression of people anguishous |for the confusion of the sound of the sea and of the waves. The three first | signs be determined in the Book | of the Apocalypse in the sixth chapter. Sol factus est niger tanquam saccus| cilicinus: et luna facta est sicut | sanguis, et stellæ ceciderunt super terraim. Then shall be the time that the| sun shall be black as a sack, |gross and rude, and the moon shall be as blood, and the stars shall fall on the | earth. The sun is said dark, |forasmuch as he is deprived of his light, as though he wept for the dying of men. | For S. Austin saith that, |the vengeance of God shall be so cruel at the day of doom, that the sun shall not dare | behold it. Or as for to speak |of the proper signification spiritually to be understood, is that, the Son of Justice, | Jesu Christ, shall be then |so dark that no man shall dare know him. The heaven is here taken for the air, and the | star judge in great fear. | The sixth sign, the edifices and buildings shall fall down: and in this sixth day thunders| and tempests full of fire |shall grow in the west, where the sun goeth down against the firmament, in running to | the east. The seventh sign, |the stones shall smite and hurtle together and shall cleave in four parts, and each | part shall smite other, | ne none. The eighth sign shall be the moving and general trembling of the earth, which| shall be so. The ninth sign, |all the earth shall be even and plain, and all the mountains and valleys shall be | brought into powder and be |all like. The tenth day, the men shall issue out of the caves and shall go by the | ways and fields as men |aliened and out of their wit, and shall not con speak one to another. The eleventh day the | bones of dead men shall |issue out of their burials and places and shall hold them upon their sepulchres, and | from the sun rising unto | it go down, the sepulchres shall be open, to the end that the dead bodies may all| issue. The twelfth sign |all the stars shall fall from the heaven and shall spread out rays of fire, and then great | quantity shall grow. In this |twelfth day it is said that all the beasts shall come to the field howling, and shall not | eat ne drink. The thirteenth |sign, all living shall die, to the end that they should arise with the dead bodies. The | fourteenth day the heaven | and the earth shall burn. The fifteenth day shall be a new heaven and a new earth,| and all things and all | dead men shall arise. The second thing that shall be afore judgment, shall be| the folly and malice |of Antichrist; he shall pain him to deceive all men by four manners. The first manner shall | be by suasion and false |exposition of Scripture. Forasmuch as he may, he shall give them to understand | Christ, and he shall destroy |the law of Jesu Christ, and shall ordain his law in alleging David the Prophet that | saith: Constitue domine legislatorem |super eos. Thus shall he say, that it was said for him as he that was | ordained of God for to |set law upon his place, after this that is said in the scripture of Daniel, Daniel xi.: | Dabunt abominationem et | desolationem templi, etc. Antichrist and his complices shall give abomination| and desolation to the temple |of God in this time, as saith the gloss: Antichrist shall be in the temple of God, | as God, for that he shall |destroy the law of God. The second manner shall be by marvellous operation of | miracles, whereof saith | the apostle S. Paul in his second Epistle ad Thessalonicenses in the second | chapter, where he saith: |Cujus adventus erit secundum operationem Sathanae in omnibus verbis et prodigiis | mendacibus. Of Antichrist |it is said that, the coming shall be after the operation of Satan in all his signs, in | all his marvels, and false | Iying deeds, whereof S. John maketh mention in the Apocalypse, the thirteenth| chapter: Fecit signa ut | etiam ignem facerit de celo in terram descendere. Antichrist shall make such signs, | that is to say, he shall |make such tokens that he shall make the fire descend from heaven. The gloss saith that, | like as the Holy Ghost descended |in likeness of fire, in likewise shall Antichrist give the evil spirit in likeness | of fire. The third manner |that he shall do for to deceive, shall be in giving of gifts, of which is written in the | book of Daniel the Prophet | in his eleventh chapter: Dabit eis potestatem in multis et terram divides| gratuito: Antichrist shall give |puissance to his servants in many things, and shall depart the earth to them after | his will. The gloss |saith that, Antichrist shall give many gifts to them that he shall deceive. And to his disciples | he shall divide the earth, |and them that and make them thereby to obey him. The fourth manner for to deceive | them shall be by torments |that he shall give to them, whereof Daniel saith in his eighth chapter: Supra quod | credi potest universe vastabit; |no man shall believe how he shall destroy and torment them that will not believe | in him, for to draw |them to him by force. And S. Gregory saith of him: Robustos quippe interficiet, et | cetera; he shall slay the |great and strong men; when he may not win nor overcome them by heart ne will, he | shall overcome them by | torment. The third thing that shall go before the judgment shall be the right vehement| fire, the which shall |go tofore the face of the judge. And God shall send this fire for four causes. First for the | renewing of the world, |for he shall purge and renew the elements. And, like to the form of the deluge it shall be | forty cubits higher than |all the mountains, like as it is written in the history scholastic; for the works of the | people may mount so high. |Secondly for the purgation of the people; for then that fire shall be instead of the | fire of purgatory to them |that then shall be on live. Thirdly for to give more greater torment to them that be | damned. Fourthly for to give |more clearness and light unto the saints. For after the saying of S. Basil: Our | Lord God when shall make | the purgation of the w others should see them. And it ought not to be believed| that within that little valley |all might be enclosed, after that which S. Jerome saith, but many shall be there, and | the others there about. |Nevertheless, in a little space of land may be men without number by divine puissance | and ordinance, and, if |it be of necessity, the chosen people shall be in the air for the agility and lightness of | their bodies, and also in soul. | And then the judge shall dispute and reprove the wicked men of the works of| mercy which he ordained | to us. And they shall not mow reply, but shall then weep upon themselves and upon| their deeds; like as S. John | Chrysostom saith upon the gospel of S. Matthew, in saying that, the Jews shall| weep their life when they |shall see their judge and him that giveth life to all men, whom they esteemed and | trowed a dead man, and | shall blame themselves for his body hurt and wounded by them. And they may not | deny their cruelty but | shall weep in great distress. The paynims, which by the vain disputations of the| philosophers were deceived |and supposed it to have been folly to worship God crucified. The Christian | men, sinners, shall weep | that have more loved the world than God. The heretics shall weep because they holden| false opinions against the |Faith of Jesu Christ whom then they shall see the sovereign judge, whom the Jews| crucified. And so shall all | the lineages of the world weep, for they shall have no force ne power ne strength| against him, nor they may |not flee before his face, nor they shall have no time of space to do penance for their | sins nor to make satisfaction |of the great anguish that they shall have of all things: there shall nothing abide | to them but weeping. |The second thing that shall follow at the judgment is the difference of the orders. For thus, | as S. Gregory saith: |at the day of judgment shall be four things, two on the party reproved, and two on the party | chosen. The first shall be |damned and perished, to whom he shall say, Esurivi et non dedistis mihi | manducare; I had hunger |and ye have given to me no meat. The other shall not be judged and perish, of | whom it is written, Qui non |credit jam judicatus est; he that believeth not is now judged. For they shall not | perceive the words of the judge, |which would not keep the words of God. The other of the party of the good | shall be judged and shall | reign, as they to whom shall be said: I have had hunger and ye have given me meat.| The other shall not be judged | and yet shall reign. That is to wit, the perfect men that shall judge others; not| that they shall give the sentence |of the judgment; for the sovereign judge shall only give the sentence, but | they be said judges, because |they be present approving the judgment. And this assistance shall be first to the | honour of saints. For it shall |be great honour to them to have their seats and sit with the judge, like as Jesu | Christ promised to them, |that they should be sitting upon twelve seats judging the twelve lineages of Israel. | Secondly, to the confirmation |of the sentence; for they shall approve the sentence given of the judge, as do the | assistants in judgment which | approve the sentence of the judge that is good and just. And with their hands| they set-to their names in witness; |like as David saith: Ut faciant in eis judicium conscriptum, etc. To the end | that they make upon the damned, |judgment written with the judge. Thirdly, that shall be to condemnation of the | evil people whom they shall |condemn by the works of their good life. The third thing that followeth the | Judgment, that shall be the signs and | tokens of the passion of Jesu Christ. That is to wit, the cross, the nails and the wounds. The| which signs shall be first |for to shew his glorious victory. And by that they shall appear in the excellence | of his glory, whereof saith |S. John Chrysostom that, the cross and the wounds shall be more shining than any | rays of the sun; now then, |saith he, consider ye what the virtue is of the cross The sun then shall be dark and | the moon shall give no |light, hereby then may ye understand how much the cross is more shining than | the moon and more clear | than the sun. Secondly, for to shew his mercy, by which he shall save the good.| Thirdly, for to shew his justice, | how justly he hath damned them that be evil, because they have despised| so noble price as his blood, |and set not thereby. And therefore as saith S. John Chrysostom: he shall say to | them hard words by manner |of reproof: For your sake I made myself a man, f what good then we should have | done. And he shall say |to the judge: Right true judge deme and judge this sinner to be mine for his trespass, | which would be shine by grace. |He is thine by nature, he is mine by his misery, he is thine by the passion, he | is mine by monition. | To thee he hath been inobedient, to me he hath been obedient. He hath received of thee| the vesture of immortality; |of me he hath taken this penible coat with which he is clad. He hath left thy | vesture and is come to mine. | Right just deemer, judge him to be mine for to be damned with me. to God, but| from God may no man appeal, | for he hath none above him. Secondly, for the crime. For all trespass and sins| shall be there openly showed, | whereof saith S. Jerome that: In this day all our deeds shall be showed, like as| they were written in a table |and noted. Thirdly, for the thing which may not suffer dilation. For all things that | shall be done at the judgment | shall be done in the twinkling of an eye. Then let us pray that we may in| this holy time so receive | him, that at the day of judgment we may be received into his everlasting bliss. Amen.| Here followeth the Nativity of our Lord Jesus Christ. | When the world had endured five thousand and nine hundred years, after Eusebius the holy saint, Octavian| the Emperor commanded |that all the world should be described, so that he might know how many cities, how | many towns, and how many | persons he had in all the universal world. Then was so great peace in the earth| that all the world was obedient |to him. And therefore our Lord would be born in that time, that it should be | known that he brought |peace from heaven. And this Emperor commanded that every man should go into the | towns, cities or villages from |whence they were of, and should bring with him a penny in acknowledgment that | he was subject to the Empire |of Rome. And by so many pence as should be found received, should be known | the number of the persons. |Joseph which then was of the lineage of David, and dwelled in Nazareth, went | into the city of Bethlehem, | and led with him the Virgin Mary his wife. And when they were come thither,| because the hostelries were |all taken up, they were constrained to be without in a common place where all | people went. And there was |a stable for an ass that he brought with him, and for an ox. In that night our | Blessed Lady and Mother |of God was delivered of our Blessed Saviour upon the hay that lay in the rack. At | which nativity our Lord shewed |many marvels. For because that the world was in so great peace, the | Romans had done made a temple |which was named the Temple of Peace, in which they counselled with Apollo | to know how long it should |stand and endure. Apollo answered to them that, it should stand as long till a | maid had brought forth | and borne a child. And therefore they did do write on the portal of the Temple: Lo! this| is the temple of peace that |ever shall endure. For they supposed well that a maid might never bear Bethlehem, | there may ye find him wrapt |in clouts. And anon, as the angel had said this, a areas multitude of angels | appeared with him, and |began to sing. Honour, glory and health be to God on high, and in the earth peace to | men of goodwill. Then |said the shepherds, let us go to Bethlehem and see this thing. And when they came they | found like as the angel had |said. And it happed this night that all the sodomites that did sin against nature | were dead and extinct; for |God hated so much this sin, that he might not suffer that nature human, which he | had taken, were delivered |to so great shame. Whereof S. Austin saith that, it lacked but little that God would not | become man for that sin. | In this time Octavian made to cut and enlarge the ways and quitted the Romans of all | the debts that they owed to him. | This feast of Nativity of our Lord is one of the greatest feasts of all the year,| and for to tell all the miracles |that our Lord hath showed, it should contain a whole book; but at this | time I shall leave and | pass over save one thing that I have heard once preached of a worshipful doctor, that| what person being in clean |life desire on this day a boon of God, as far as it is rightful and good for him, | our Lord at the reverence |of this blessed high feast of his Nativity will grant it to him. Then let us always | make us in clean life at |this feast that we may so please him, that after this short life we may come unto his | bliss. Amen. And here followeth |His Circumcision. The day of the circumcision of our Lord there be four things that make and show it to | be holy and solemn. The first is |the utas of the Nativity. The second the imposition of a new name bearing health. The third the | effusion of his precious blood. |The fourth the signs of the circumcision. As for the first it appeareth, for the | utas of saints be solemn, |by much more reason ought it to be of him that is the saint of all saints. Now it | seemeth that the Nativity |of our Lord ought not to have none utas. For the nativity tendeth to the death. And the | decease of saints have their | utas because they be born of the nativity that stretcheth to life perdurable, for to | be after glorified in body. |And by the same way it seemeth that the nativity of the glorious Virgin Mary | and of S. John Baptist, and |of the Resurrection of our Lord ought not to have utas, for the resurrection was | then done. Hereto we ought |to consider, like as saith a doctor, that, in this we should fulfil such things as we | accomplished not in the |principal day that our Lord was born in. Of which of ancient time men were wont to | sing at the Mass: | Vultum tuum domine, etc. to the honour of our Lady S. Mary. The other octaves or| utases as of Paske, |Whitsuntide, the nativity of our Lady and S. John Baptist be of devotion, as of other | | | saints that men will honour | for singular cause or affection. And they may be said the octaves of| figuration, for they signify |and figure the octave of the last resurrection perpetual, which is the eighth age. And | as to the second, this | day was his name imposed to him, and was named with the new name that the mouth of| God named. This is the name | of which there is none other under heaven by which we may be saved, that is| Jesus. After S. Bernard: |This is the name which in the mouth is honey, in the ear melody, and in the heart joy; | this is the name after |that he saith, it lighteth and shineth like oil. When it is preached it feedeth the soul, | when it is in the mind of the |heart it is sweet, and it anointeth when it is called. And as the evangelist saith, | he had three names, that is |to wit the Son of God, Jesus, and Christus. He is called the Son of God | insomuch as he is God of | God the Father; Christ insomuch as he is a man taken of a person divine and | nature human, and Jesus |inasmuch as he is God united to our humanity. And of this three manner of names, | saith S. Bernard: Ye that | lie in dust and powder arise out of your sleep and awake ye and give praising to| God. Lo here that our Lord |shall come unto your health, he cometh with unction, he cometh with glory. Jesus | cometh not without health, |nor Christ cometh not without unction, nor the Son of God without glory. For | he is our health, our unction |and our joy. And as touching this treble name; before his passion, he was | not perfectly known. As touching |the first he was somewhat known by conjecting, as of his enemies, | | | which said Jesu Christ to be |the Son of God. And as to the second, of less or fewer he was known for Jesu | Christ. And as to the third, |vocally, for as much as by the voice he was called Jesus. But as to the reason of | the name, he was not known. | For Jesus is as much to say as Saviour, and this understood not they. After the| resurrection, this treble |was clarified and declared. The first to the certainty, the second to the publication, the | third to the reason of the name. |The first name is Son of God. And that these names be appropriate to him, Saint | Hilary in his book that he | made of the Trinity saith thus: Vere filium Dei unigenitum. In divers manners | this name, Son of God, |is known, as it is witnessed of God. God the Father witnesseth it that he is his son. | Apostles preach it, the religious | believe it, the fiends our enemies confess it. And therefore we know our| Lord Jesu Christ in his manners, |by name, by nature, by nativity, by puissance, and by his passion. The second | name is Christus, which is |interpreted unction. For he was anointed with the oil of gladness before all them | that to him were party. And | by that he is said anointed, it is showed that he was a prophet, a champion, a priest | and a king. These four persons |sometime were wont to be anointed. Jesu Christ was a prophet teaching the | doctrine divine, a champion |in the battle against the devil whom he overcame, a priest in reconciling the | human lineage to God |the Father, and a king in distributing and rewarding every man. Of this second | name we be all named, |for of this name Christ we be called christian men. Of which name S. Austin saith | | | thus: Every christian man |ought to be c puissance or might is to him perdurable, the second, of might of | habitation, is to him sith |the beginning of his conception, like as the angel showed, and after that he | hath puissance of deed and |work. was imposed to him of Joseph, because of his passion that was to against | original sin, the devil weened |that he that received it were a sinner, and had need of the remedy of | circumcision. And for this | cause Jesu Christ would that his mother being alway a virgin should be married, | because that by the sacrament | of matrimony his Incarnati purpose is for to leave sin and take the good, | the which is showed us by | the son that dispended his good follily, and when he had perceived that he had | done evil and foolishly, |he advertised himself and said: I shall depart and return to my father, and shall pray | that I may serve him, | and that he may receive me to mercy, and make me as one of his servants. The third is| shame of sin, whereof |saith S. Paul to them that for their sins be in pain and in torment: What fruit have ye | founder in those sins in your life | of which now ye be ashamed? The fourth is dread of the coming judgment | and doom, whereof Job saith: |I have feared and doubted God as men dread the waves of the sea in their great | rage and tempest. And S. Jerome |saith thus: Sive comedam sive bibam, etc. As oft as I eat or drink or that | I do any other thing, alway | me seemeth that I hear the sound and the voice crying: Arise, ye dead men, and| come to the doom and the |judgment. The fifth is contrition, whereof S. Jerome saith: Give thy weeping| | | and bitterness of that | which thou hast angered thy God by thy sin. The sixth is confession, whereof David| saith: Dixi confitebor, etc.: | I have said and purposed in my heart that I shall confess me to God and make | knowledge of my sin. |The seventh is hope of pardon, for if Judas had had very repentance and hope, and had | confessed his sin, he had |had forgiveness and pardon. The eighth is satisfaction and sacrifice, and then is the | man verily circumcised, | not only from the sin, but also from pain. Where the two first days be for the sorrow of| sin that hath been done and |the will for to amend it, the third day we should confess the evil that we have done | and the good deeds that | we have left. The other four days be orison, effusion of tears, affliction of body, and| alms given. Or otherwise | by these eight days may be understood eight things, of which the considerati the | nativity of Jesu Christ | that is called the day of circumcision, we find that Jesu Christ said by the| mouth of his saints: | Non veni legem solvere sed adimplere; I came not, said Jesu Christ, to break the| law, but to fulfil it. | And he was that day circumcised and named Jesus, which is as much to say as Saviour.| And at the circumcision |must he cut a little of the skin at the end of the member or yard, and that is signified | and shewed that we ought |to be circumcised, and cut and taken away from us the sins and evil vices, that is | to wit pride, wrath, envy, |covetousness, sloth, gluttony, and lechery, and all sins, and purge us by confession, | by contrition, by satisfaction, |by almsdeeds, and by prayers, and to give for God's sake of the goods that he | hath lent us. For |we have nothing proper, but Jesu Christ hath lent to us all that we have. Then it is well | reason that we do give for him | to the poor of such goods as be his, for we be but servants, and we ought to| give to the hungry meat, |to the thirsty drink, to the naked clothing, visit the sick, and tofore all things to | love God, and after, our | neighbour as ourself; and despoil ourself from sin, and clothe us with good works| and virtues, and follow the | commandment of Jesu Christ. And in this manner we shall fulfil the will of our| father Jesu Christ, if we |been so purged and thus circumcised. Then let us pray unto the Lord of heaven | that saith that he came not |to break the law but to fulfil it, that he give us grace in such manner to fulfil the law | and his will in this world, |hat we may come into his holy bliss in heaven. Amen. Here followeth the Feast of | the Epiphany of our Lord and | of the three kings. The Feast of the Epiphany of our Lord is adorned of| four miracles, and after |them it hath four names. On this day the kings worshipped Jesu Christ, and S. John | Baptist baptized him. And |Jesu Christ changed this day water into wine, and he fed five thousand men with five | loaves of bread. When Jesu | Christ was in the age of thirteen days the three kings came to him the way like | as the star led them, and |therefore this day is called Epiphany, or the thiephanye in common language. And | is said of this term epi, |which is as much as to say as above, and of this term phanes which is as much to say | as apparition. For then the |star appeared above them in the air, where the same Jesus by the star that was seen | above them showed him to | the kings. And that day twenty-nine years passed, that was at the entry of thirty| years, for he had twenty-nine | years and thirteen days, and began the thirtieth year as saith S. Luke. Or after| this that Bede saith, he had |thirty years complete, as the Church of Rome holdeth. And then he was baptized in | the flood or river of Jordan, | and therefore it is called the thiephanie said of Theos, which is as much to say as| God, and phanes apparition. |For then God, that is the Trinity, appeared, God the Father in voice, God the Son | in flesh human, God the Holy |Ghost in likeness of a dove. After this, that same day a year, when he was | | | thirty-one year old and |thirteen days, he turned water into wine, and therefore it is called Bethania, said of | beth, that is to say an | house, and phanes, that is apparition. And this miracle was done of the wine in an| house by which he showed |him very God. And this same day a year after that was thirty-two years, he fed | five thousand men with |five loaves, like as Bede saith. And is also sung in an hymn which beginneth: | Illuminans altissimus. And therefore |it is called phagiphania, of phage, that is to say meat. And of this | fourth miracle some doubt | if it were done on this day, for it is not written of Bede expressly, and because that| in the gospel of S. John |is read that it was done nigh unto Pasque. Therefore the four apparitions were set on | this day. The first by the |star unto the crib or racke; the second by the voice of the Father on flom Jordan; the | third of the water into |wine at the house of Archedeclyn; the fourth by the multiplication of five | loaves in desert. Of the first |apparition we make solemnity on this day principally, and therefore pursue | we the history such as it is. |When our Lord was born, the three kings came into Jerusalem, of whom the names be written in | Hebrew, that is to wit |Galgalath, Magalath, and Tharath. And in Greek Appelius, Amerius, and Damascus. And in Latin | Jaspar, Melchior, and Balthasar. |And it is to wit that this name Magus hath three significations. It is said | illuser or deceiver, enchanter, | and wise. They been illusers or deceivers because they deceived Herod. For| they returned not by him |when they departed from the place where they had honoured and offered to Jesus, | | | but returned by another way |into their country. Magus also is said enchanter. And hereof be said the | enchanters of Pharaoh, Magi, |which by their malefice made their marvels by the enchanting of the craft of the | devil. And S. John Chrysostom | calleth these kings Magos, as wicked and evil-doers. For first they were| full of malefices, but after |they were converted. To whom God would show his Nativity, and bring them to | him to the end that to sinners | he would do pardon. Item, Magus in same wise. For Magus in Hebrew is said| doctor, in Greek, philosopher, |and in Latin, wise, whereof they be said Magi, that is to say great in | wisdom. And these three |came into Jerusalem with a great company and great estate. But wherefore came | they to Jerusalem when |the child was not born there? S. Remigius assigneth four reasons. The first reason is | that, the kings had knowledge | of the nativity of the Child that was born of the Virgin Mary, but not of the| place. And because that Jerusalem |was the most city royal and there was the see of the sovereign priest, they | thought that so noble a child, |so nobly showed ought to be born in the most noble city that was royal. The | second cause was, for in |Jerusalem were the doctors and the wise men by whom they might know where the | said child was born. The third |cause was to the end that the Jews should have none excusation. For they might | have said that they had knowledge | of the place where he should be born, but the time knew they not, and| therefore they might say, | we believe it not. And the kings showed to them the time, and the Jews showed| the place. The fourth to the doubt |of the Jews and their curiosity, for these kings believed one only prophet, | and the Jews believed |not many. They sought a strange king, and the Jews sought not their own king. These | | | kings came from far countries, |and the Jews were neighbours fast by. These kings were successors of | Balaam, and came at the | vision and sight of the star, by the prophecy of their father, which said that a star shall| be born or spring out of | Jacob, and a man shall arise of the lineage of Israel. That other cause that moveth them| to come to Jerusalem putteth |S. John Chrysostom, which saith that there were some that affirmed for truth | that, there were great clerks |ethat curiously studied to know the secrets of heaven; and after, they chose twelv | of them to take heed. | And if any of them died, his son or next kinsman shall be set in his place. And these| twelve every year ascended |upon a mountain which was called Victorial, and three days they abode there, and | washed them clean, and prayed | our Lord that he would show to them the star that Balaam had said and prophesied before.| Now it happened on a time that |they were there the day of the Nativity of Jesu Christ, and a star came over them | upon this mountain which |had the form of a right fair child, and under his head was a shining cross, which | spake to these three kings | saying: Go ye hastily into the land of Judea, and there ye shall find the king that ye| seek, which is born of a virgin. | Another cause putteth S. Austin; for it might well be that the angel of heaven| appeared to them which said: | the star that ye see is Jesu Christ, go ye anon and worship him. Another cause | putteth S. Leo, that by |the star which appeared to them, which was more resplendent and shining than the other, | that it showed the sovereign |king to be born on the earth. Then anon departed they for to come to that | | | place. Now may it be demanded |how, in so little space of thirteen days they might come from so far as from the | East unto Jerusalem, which |is in the middle of the world, which is a great space and a long way. Thereto | answereth S. Remigius the | doctor, and saith that, the child to whom they went, might well make them to go| so much way in that while. |Or after this that S. Jerome saith, that they came upon dromedaries, which be | beasts that may go as |much in one day as an horse in three days. And when they came into Jerusalem, they | demanded in what place | the King of Jews was born. And they demanded not if he was born, for they| believed it firmly that he |was born. And if any had demanded of them: Whereby know ye that he is born? | They would have answered: |We have seen his star in the Orient, and therefore we come to worship him. This is | to understand, we being in the |Orient saw his star that showed that he was born in Judea, and we be come to | worship him. And therefore |saith this doctor Remigius, that they confessed this child very man, very King, and | very God. Very man when |they said where is he that is born? very King when they said King of Jews; very God | when they said we be come |to worship him. For there was a commandment that none should be worshipped | but God. And thus as saith S. |John Chrysostom: They confessed the child very God by word, by deed, and by | gifts of their treasures that | they offered to him. And when Herod had heard this he was much troubled, and| all Jerusalem with him. |Herod was troubled for three causes, first, because he dreaded that the Jews would | | | receive the child born for | their King, and refuse he would worship also him, and thought that he would go| slay him. And it is to |wit that as soon as they were entered into Jerusalem, the sight of the star was taken | from them and for three causes: |First, that they should be constrained to seek that place of his nativity like as | they were certified by the |appearing of the star and by the prophecy of the place of his birth, and so it was | done. Secondly, that they that | sought the help and the world, had deserved to lose the aid divine. The third| because that the signs |be given to miscreants, and prophecies to them that believe well like, as the apostle | saith. And therefore the sign |which was given to the three kings, which yet were paynims ought not to | appear to them as long as |they were with the Jews. And when they were issued of Jerusalem, the star appeared | to them, which went before | them, and brought them till it came above the place where the Child was. And ye | ought to know that there be |three opinions of this star, which Remigius the doctor putteth, saying that: Some | say that it was the Holy Ghost |which appeared to the three kings in the form of a star, which after appeared | upon the head of Jesu Christ |in the likeness of a dove. Others say, like to S. John Chrysostom, that it was an | angel that appeared to the |shepherds, and after appeared to the kings, but to the shepherds, Jews, as to them that | use reason in form of a reasonable |creature, and to the paynims as unreasonable, that is to say of a star. Others | say more reasonably and | more veritably that it was a star new created, and made of God, the which when he| had done his office was brought |again into the matter whereof it was first formed. And this star was this that | Fulgentius saith: It differenced |from the other stars in three things. First, in situation, for it was not fixed in | the firmament, but it hung |in the air nigh to the earth. Secondly, in clearness, for it was shining more than the | | | others. It appeared so that |the clearness of the sun might not hurt nor appale her light, but at plain mid-day | it had right great light |and clearness. Thirdly, in moving, for it went alway before the kings in manner of | one going in the way, ne |it had none turning as a circle turneth, but in such manner as a person goeth in the | | | way. And when the kings | were issued out of Jerusalem, and set in their way, they saw the star whereof they had| lost the sight, and were greatly enjoyed. |And we ought to note that there be five manners of stars that these kings saw. The first is material, | the second spiritual, the | third intellectual, the fourth reasonable, the fifth substantial. The first, that is material, they saw| in the East; the second, that |is spiritual, they saw in heart, and that is in the faith. For if this faith had not | been in their hearts that had |lighted them, they had never seen the star material. They had faith of the | humanity when they said: |Where is he that is born? and of his royal dignity when they called him King of Jews, | and of his deity when they | said they went to worship him. The third intellectual, which is, that the angel that| they saw in vision, when |it was by the angel showed to them that they should not return by Herod, how be it | that after one gloss it was |our Lord that warned them. The fourth, that was reasonable, that was the Virgin | Mary whom they saw in |the stable holding her child. The fifth, that is substantial, that is to say that he had | | | substance above all other singular. |And that was Jesu Christ whom they saw in the crib. And hereof is it said | in the gospel that they entered | into the house and found the child with Mary his mother, and then they| worshipped him. And when |they were entered into the house secretly and had found the child, they kneeled | and offered to him these |three gifts, that is to wit gold, incense, and myrrh. And this saith S. Austin: O infantia, | cui astra subduntur, etc. | O infancy or childhood, to whom the stars be subject, to whose clothes angels| | | bow, the stars give virtue, |the kings joy, and the followers of wisdom bow their knees. O blessed tigury | or little house, O holy | seat of God. And S. Jerome saith: This is an heaven where is no light but the star. O| palace celestial in which |thou dwellest, not as King adorned with precious stones, but incorporate. To | whom, for a soft bed was | duresse and hard crib, for curtains of gold and silk, the fume and stench of dung, | but the star of heaven |was clearly embellished. I am abashed when I behold these clothes and see the | heaven. The heart burneth |me for hete when I see him in the crib, a poor mendicant, and over him the stars. I see | him right clear, right noble, | and right rich. O ye kings, what do ye? Ye worship the child in a little foul house| wrapped in foul clouts. Is he |then not God? Ye offer to him gold, and whereof is he King, and where is his | royal hall? Where is |his throne? Where is his court royal, frequented and used with nobles? The stable is | that not his hall? And |his throne the rack or crib? They that frequent this court, is it not Joseph and Mary? they | be as unwitting, to the end |that they become wise. Of whom saith Hilary in his second book that he made of | the Trinity: The Virgin | hath borne a child, but this that she hath childed is of God; the child is Iying in the| rack, and the angels be heard |singing and praising him, the clothes be foul, and God is worshipped. The dignity | | | of his puissance is not taken |away though the humility of his flesh is declared. Lo, how in this child Jesus | were not only the humble |and small things, but also the rich, and the noble, and the high things. And hereof | saith S. Jerome upon the Epistle | ad Hebreos: Thou beholdest the rack of Jesu Christ; see also the heaven.| Thou seest also the child Iying | in the crib, but take heed also how the angels sing and praise God. Herod is| persecuted and the kings | worship the child. The pharisees knew him not, but the star showed him. He is| baptized of his servant, but the |voice of the Father is heard above thundering. He is plunged in the water, but | the Holy Ghost The descended |upon him in likeness of a dove. And of the cause wherefore these kings offered these | gifts, many reasons be assigned. |One of the causes is, as saith Remigius the doctor, that the ancient ordinance | was that no man should come |to God ne to the king with a void hand, but that he brought him some gift. | | | And they of Chaldea were |accustomed to offer such gifts. They, as Scholastica Historia saith, came from the | | | end of Persia, from the |Chaldeans whereas is the flood of Saba, of which flood the region of Saba is named. | The second reason is |of S. Bernard: For they offered to Mary, the mother of the child, gold for to relieve her | poverty, incense against the |stench of the stable and evil air, myrrh for to comfort the tender members of the | child and to put away vermin. |The third reason was that they offered gold for to pay the tribute, the incense for | to make sacrifice, the myrrh | for the sepulture of dead men. The fourth for the gold signifieth dilection or| love; the incense, orison |or prayer; the myrrh, of the flesh mortification. And these three things ought we | offer to God. The fifth because | by these three be signified three things that be in Jesu Christ: The| precious deity, the soul full |of holiness, and the entire flesh all pure and without corruption. And these three | things be signified that |were in the ark of Moses. The rod which flourished, that was the flesh of Jesu Christ | that rose from death to life; | the tables wherein the commandments were written, that is the soul, wherein| be all the treasures of sapience |and science of godhead. The manna signifieth the godhead, which hath all | sweetness of suavity. By |the gold which is most precious of all metals is understood the Deity; by the | incense the soul right devout, |for the incense signifieth devotion and orison; by the myrrh which preserveth | from corruption, is understood |the flesh which was without corruption. And the kings when they were | | | admonished and warned by | revelation in their sleep that they should not return by Herod, and by another way| they should return into their country, |lo hear then how they came and went in their journey. For they came to | adore and worship the King | of kings in their proper persons, by the star that led them, and by the prophet| that enseigned and taught | them. And by the warning of the angel returned and rested at their death in Jesu| Christ. Of whom the bodies | were brought to Milan, where as now is the convent of the friars preachers, and| now be at Cologne in S. Peter's |Church, which is the Cathedral and See of the Archbishop. Then let us pray | unto Almighty God that this | day showed him to these kings and at his baptism, where the voice of the Father | was heard and the Holy Ghost | seen, and at the feast turned water into wine, and fed five thousand men, | besides women and children, |with five loaves and two fishes, that at the reverence of this high and great feast | he forgive us our trespasses |and sins, and after this short life we may come to his everlasting bliss in heaven. Amen. | Here beginneth Septuagesima. |At Septuagesima beginneth the time of deviation or going out of the way, of the whole world, which | began at Adam and dured |unto Moses. And in this time is read the Book of Genesis. The time of Septuagesima | representeth the time of | deviation, that is of transgression. The Sexagesima signifieth the time of| revocation. The Quinquagesima | signifieth the time of remission. The Quadragesima signifieth of penance and| satisfaction. The Septuagesima beginneth |when the Church singeth in the office of the mass: | Circumdederunt me, and endureth |unto the Saturday after Easter-day. The Septuagesima was instituted for | three reasons; like as Master | John Beleth putteth in the office of the Church. The first reason was for the| redemption. For the holy fathers |some time ordained that for the honour of the Ascension of Jesu Christ, in | the which our nature ascended |into heaven and was above the angels, that this day should be hallowed | solemnly, and should be kept |from fasting, and at the beginning of the Church also solemnly, as the Sunday. | And procession was made |in representing the procession of the apostles, which they made on that | | | day, or of the angels that |came to meet him and therefore commonly the proverb was that, the Thursday | and the Sunday were cousins, |for then that one was as solemn as that other. But because that the feasts of | saints came, and be multiplied, |which were grievous to hallow so many feasts, therefore the feast of the | Thursday ceased. And for to |recompense that, there is a week of abstinence ordained like to Lent and is called | Septuagesima. That other reason |is for the signification of the time, for by this time is signified to us the time of | deviation, of going out of the way |of exile, and of tribulation of the human lineage, from sith Adam unto | the end of the world. Which |exile is hallowed upon the revolution of seven days and of seven thousand years, | understood by seventy days |or by seventy hundred years. For from the beginning of the world unto the | ascension we account six hundred | years, and of the rest, that we reckon it for the seventh thousand, of | which God knoweth only |the term. Now it is so that Jesu Christ brought us out of this exile in the sixth age, | in hope of perpetual life |of all them that be revested with the vesture of innocence. By baptism we be | regenerate, and when we | shall have passed the time of this exile, he shall clothe us of double vesture, that is to| wit of body and soul in glory. |And in the time of deviation and of exile we leave the song of gladness, that is alleluia, but the | Saturday of Easter we |sing one alleluia, in enjoying us and thanking God of the vesture perpetual which by hope we abide | | | for to recover in the sixth age. |And in the mass we set a tract, in figuring the labour that yet we ought to do, and | in fulfilling the commandments |of God. And the double alleluia that we sing after Easter, signifieth the double | vesture that we shall have |in body and in soul. The third reason is for representation. For the Septuagesima | representeth seventy years |in which the children of Israel were in Babylon in servitude. And in such manner | that they cast away and left | their usage of song of gladness, saying: Quomodo cantabimus canticum| domini, etc. Thus leave | we the song of praising and of gladness. After, licence was given to them to return in| | | the time of Sexagesima, and |they began them to joy, and so we do the Saturday of Easter. As in the year of | Sexagesima we sing alleluia |in representing their joy and gladness, how well in the returning they had pain | and sorrow to take their things |and bear with them, therefore we sing anon after the tract which followeth | the alleluia. And in the Saturday |after Easter in which Septuagesima is complete, we sing double alleluia, in | figuring the plain gladness | that they had when they were returned into their country. And this time thus of | the servitude of the children |of Israel representeth the time of our pilgrimage of the life of this world. For thus| | | as they were delivered in |the sixtieth year, so were we in the sixth age. And as they had pain gathering and | assembling their things for |to bear with them, so have we in fulfilling the commandments of God. And like as | they were in rest when they | came into their country, and in gladness and in joy, in like wise we sing double| alleluia, that betokeneth double |joy that we shall have as well in body as in soul. In this time then of exile of | the Church, full of many |tribulations, and as thrown out into the deepness of desperation almost and despair, | she sigheth for sorrow in saying |the office of the mass: Circumdederunt me gemitus mortis, etc., and showeth | many demonstrations that she |suffereth, as well as for the misery that she had deserved by sin, as for the | double pain that she is run |in, and as for the trespass to her neighbour. But alway, for as much as she fall not in | despair, is purposed to her in |the Gospel and Epistle three manner of remedies. The first is that if she will | issue of these tribulations, |that she labour in the vineyard of her soul in cutting and pulling out the vices | and the sins, and after in |a way of this present life, she seek the works of penance. And after that in doing | spiritual battle, she defend her | strongly against the temptations of the enemy. And if she do these three| things she shall have threefold | reward. For in labouring God shall give her the penny, and in well running the| prize, and in well fighting |the crown. And because that Septuagesima signifieth the time of our captivity, the | remedy is proposed to us |by which we may be, delivered, in flying the misery by running, by victory in | fighting, and by the penny |in us ayenbyeng. Of Sexagesima. The Sexagesima beginneth when is sung in the Church, | at office of the mass: Exsurge |domine, and this endeth the Wednesday after Easter day; and was instituted for | redemption, for signification, and |for representation. For redemption it was instituted. For Melchiades the | Pope and Silvester instituted |that men should eat twice on the Saturday, to the end that they that had fasted the | Friday, which should always |be fasted, were not grieved. And in rechaet then of the Saturdays of this | time, they adjousted and joined | a week of the Lent thereto, and called it Sexagesima. That other reason is| for signification; for that time | signifieth the time of widowhood of the Church, and the wailing of the same| for the absence of her spouse |which was vanished into heaven. There be two wings given to the Church. The | first is the exercitation of six | works of mercy, and the fulfilment of the ten commandments of the law, for| sixty make six sithes ten. |And by six be understood the six works of mercy, and by ten the ten commandments | of the law. The third reason |is for representation. For the Sexagesima representeth also the mystery of | worshipping the king | of Israel. Hear ye therefore, my sons, me your father, serve ye God in truth and seek ye| redemption. For by ten is |understood the man, which is the tenth penny which is made and formed to that he be | the reparation of nine orders |of angels, or for that he is formed of four qualities to the body. And to the soul he | | | hath three powers, that is |to wit memory, understanding, and will, which be made that he serve | the Blessed Trinity, to the |end that we believe firmly in him and love him ardently, and diligently we have and | hold him in our mind. |By six be understood six mysteries, by the which the man is redeemed by Jesu | Christ, the which be the |Incarnation, the Nativity, the Passion, his descension into hell, his resurrection, and | his ascension into heaven. |And because that the Sexagesima stretcheth unto the Wednesday after Easter, | that day is sung: Venite benedicti, |etc. For they that fulfil the works of mercy shall hear in the end: Venite, | as Jesu Christ witnesseth. And | then shall the door be opened to the spouse, and embrace God her spouse.| And it is warned in an epistle, |that she should bear patiently tribulation, as S. Paul did, in the absence of | her spouse. And in the gospel| that she be always ententive to sow good works, and that she that had sung| | as despaired: Circumdederunt me |gemitus mortis, now return for to demand that she be holpen in her | tribulations, and require to | be delivered in saying Exsurge domine adjuva, etc., which is the beginning of| | | the office of the mass. |And this doth holy Church in three manners. For some be in holy Church that be oppressed of | adversity, but they be not | out. And some that be not oppressed ne cast out. And some that be oppressed and cast out. And| because that they may |not bear adversities, it is to dread and great peril lest the prosperities all to-break them. | Wherefore holy Church crieth | that he arise as to the first in comforting them, for it seemeth that he sleepeth| when he delivereth them not. | She crieth also as to the second, that he arise in converting them from whom it| seemeth that he turneth | his face from them in putting them from him. She crieth also as to the third, that he| arise in helping them | in prosperity, and in delivering them. Of Quinquagesima. The Quinquagesima dureth from| the Sunday in which is sung |in the Church in the office of the mass, Esto mihi, etc. And that endeth on Easter day, and is | instituted for supplication and |fulfilling, for signification, and for representation. For fulfilling and accomplishing | because that we should fast |forty days after the form of Jesu Christ. And there be but thirty-six days to fast, but | men fast not the Sundays, | for the gladness and the reverence of the resurrection, and also for the ensample| of Jesu Christ, which ate |two times with his disciples on the day of his resurrection, when he entered in | where his disciples were, | and the doors or gates shut, and they brought him part of a roasted fish and of a| honey-comb. And after that, |with his two disciples which went to Emmaus, he ate also, as some say. And | therefore be four days put to, |for accomplishing of the Sundays which be not fasted. And after because the | clergy go before the common |people, so should they go in devotion and holiness, therefore they begin to fast | two days before, and abstain |them from eating flesh. And thus is one week put, which is called the | Quinquagesima, after this that | S. Ambrose saith. That other reason is for the signification, for the| Quinquagesima signifieth the time |of remission and of penance, in which the sins be pardoned and forgiven. | | The fiftieth year was the year of remission, for then the debts were quitted, and the bondmen | were franchised and let go free, | and every one came again to his heritage. By which is understood that by penance our | sins be forgiven, and from the | servitude and bondage of our enemy we be delivered, and so we be returned to | the mansion of our heritage | of heaven. The third reason is for representation. For the Quinquagesima | | | representeth not to us only | the time of remission, but also the state of the beatitude of heaven which is to us | represented. For in the fiftieth | year servants were made free, and in the fiftieth day that the lamb was sacrificed | the law of Moses was given. | And the fiftieth day after Paske the Holy Ghost was given. And therefore this | name fifty, representeth the | beatitude of heaven, whereas was taken the possession of liberty, the | knowledge of verity, and perfection | of charity. Now it is to wit that three things be necessary which be contained | and set in the Epistle and | in the Gospel, that is that penance, that is to say the works of penance be perfect. | That is to wit charity, which | is purposed in the Epistle; and the memory of the passion of Jesu Christ; and faith | which is understood by | the sight given to the blind man which be contained in the gospel. For faith maketh the | works acceptable to God. | For without faith no man may please God, and the mind of the passion of God maketh | the works light. Whereof saith | egory: If the passion of Jesu Christ be well had in mind, there is | nothing but it may be borne |and suffered easily, for the love of God may not be idle. This saith S. Gregory: If it | work, it is great, and if it | refuse, it is no love. And thus as the Church at the beginning, as despaired, had cried: | Circumderunt me gemitus mortis, | and after returning to him demanded to be holpen, thus now when she hath | taken affiance and hope of pardon, | for hope of penance she prayeth and saith: Esto mihi in Deum protectorem. | Or she demandeth four things, | that it is to wit protection, confirmation, refuge and conduct. All the | | | children of the Church or they | be in grace or they be in sin, or in adversity, or in prosperity. They that be in | grace demand for to be confirmed, | hat be in sin demand refuge, they in adversity demand protection, | that they from their tribulations | may be defended, and they in prosperity demand conduct that they may be of | God led and conducted. | And thus as it is said Quinquagesima termineth and endeth at Easter, because | that penance maketh them | to rise to new life. And in signification hereof the psalm of Miserere mei Deus, | which is the fiftieth psalm | and the psalm of penance, is in the time of Lent oft used and said. Of Quadragesima. | The Quadragesima, which we | call now in English Lent, beginneth the Sunday in which is sung in the office of | the mass: Invocavit me, etc. | And the Church which was much troubled tofore by so many tribulations and had | cried: Circumdederunt me, and | r, in respiring and sighing had asked help in saying: Exsurge domini, now | she showeth that she is heard, | when she saith: He hath called me and I have heard. Now it is to understand that | the Quadragesima containeth forty-two | days for to account the Sundays. And if they be not reckoned there | be but thirty-six days for to | fast, which be the tenth part of the days of the year. But the four days tofore be put | to, because the number sacred | by the Quadragesima be accomplished, the which our saviour Jesu Christ | hallowed by his holy fasting. | And because we fast in this number of forty, there may be assigned three | | | reasons. The first reason putteth | S. Austin, which saith that S. Matthew setteth forty generations to the end, | then, that our Lord by his | holy Quadragesima descended to us, we should ascend to him by our | Quadragesima. That other assigneth | the same, saying, to that we may have the Quinquagesima we must put to | forty ten; for unto that, | hat we may come to the blessed glory and rest in heaven, it behoveth us to labour all the | time of this present life. | And therefore our Lord abode forty days with his disciples after his resurrection, and | after the tenth day, he sent | to them the Holy Ghost. The third reason assigneth Master Prepositivus in the sum | of the office of the Church, | which saith: The world is divided into four parts, and the year into four times, and | the man of four elements | and four complexions is composed. And we have the new law which is ordained | of four evangelists, and the | ten commandments that we have broken. It behoveth then that the number of ten by | the number of four be multiplied, |that thus we make the Quadragesima, that we fulfil the commandments of the| old law and new. Our | body, as said is, is composed of four elements, like as they had four seats in our body. | That is to wit, the fire which | is in the eyes, the air in the tongue and ears, the water in the natural members | named genitals, and the earth | hath domination in the hands and other members. Then in the eyes is curiosity, | in the tongue and ears is | scurrility, in the natural members, that is to say genitals, voluptuousness, and in | the hands and other members | cruelty. And these four things confessed the publican when he prayed God. He | | | held him afar in confessing | his luxury which is stinking, like thus as he said: Sire, I dare not approach | to thee, for I might stink | in thy nose. And because he durst not lift up his eyes he confessed curiosity. And in | that he smote himself on |the breast he confessed cruelty. And when he said: Deus propitius esto mihi | peccatori, he confessed the | crime and gluttony which he ought to repress. S. Gregory in his homilies putteth also | three reasons wherefore in | abstinence is holden the number of forty. For the virtue of the ten | commandments in the law, and | for the accomplishing of the four books of the evangelists. And also in this world | we that be in mortal body | be composed of the four elements, and by the will of the mortal body we gainsay | the commandments of God. | Therefore then, we that have disobeyed the commandments of God by the | desire of the flesh, it is according | that the same flesh by four times ten we put to penance and affliction from | this present day unto Easter | six weeks coming, that be forty-two days. If the Sundays be taken away, there | abide in the abstinence but | thirty-six days. And the year is demened by three hundred sixty and five days, we | give the tithe of them to God | when we fast. And this saith S. Gregory: Wherefore keep we not this fasting in | the time that Jesu Christ fasted, | which was anon after his baptism, but we begin so that we continue until | Easter. Hereof be assigned four | reasons in the sum of the office of Master John Beleth in the office of the | Church. The first is that we will | Church. The first is that we will | The second is to that we should | follow the children of Israel which first issued out of Egypt, and in this time | issued also out Babylon, |the which thing appeareth, for as well that one as that other, anon as they were | returned hallowed the solemnity | of Easter. And thus we for to ensue them in this time, we fast to the end that, | from Egypt and from Babylon, | that is to understand from this mortal world into the country of our heritage | of heaven, we may enter. | The third reason is because that in the printemps the heat of the flesh moveth and | boileth, to the end that we may | refrain us therein, this time we fast. The fourth is forasmuch as anon after our | fasting we ought to receive the | Body of Jesu Christ, for in likewise as the children of Israel, tofore they had | eaten the lamb, they put them | in affliction by penance in eating wild lettuce and bitter, right so we ought to | withdraw and put us in affliction | by penance, to the end that the more worthily we may take and receive the | Lamb of life. Amen. The | Ember Days. The fasting of the Quatretemps, called in English Ember days, the Pope Calixtus | ordained them. And this fast | is kept four times in the year, and for divers reasons. For the first time, which is in March, is hot | and moist. The second, in | summer, is hot and dry. The third, in harvest, is cold and dry. The fourth in winter is | cold and moist. Then let us | fast in March which is printemps for to repress the heat of the flesh boiling, | and to quench luxury or | to temper it. In summer we ought to fast to the end that we chastise the burning | and ardour of avarice. In | harvest for to repress the drought of pride, and in winter for to chastise the | coldness of untruth and of | malice. The second reason why we fast four times; for these fastings here begin in | March in the first week | of the Lent, to the end that vices wax dry in us, for they may not all be quenched; | or because that we cast | them away, and the boughs and herbs of virtues may grow in us. And in summer also, | in the Whitsun week, for | then cometh the Holy Ghost, and therefore we ought to be fervent and esprised in | the love of the Holy Ghost. | They be fasted also in September tofore Michaelmas, and these be the third | fastings, because that in this | time the fruits be gathered and we should render to God the fruits of good works. | In December they be also, | and they be the fourth fastings, and in this time the herbs die, and we ought to | be mortified to the world. | The third reason is for to ensue the Jews. For the Jews fasted four times in the | | | year, that is to wit, tofore | Easter, tofore Whitsunside, tofore the setting of the tabernacle in the temple in | September, and tofore the | dedication of the temple in December. The fourth reason is because the man is | composed of four elements | touching the body, and of three virtues or powers in his soul: that is to wit, the | understanding, the will, and | the mind. To this then that this fasting may attemper in us four times in the year, | at each time we fast three | days, to the end that the number of four may be reported to the body, and the | number of three to the soul. | These be the reasons of Master Beleth. The fifth reason, as saith John | Damascenus: in March and in | printemps the blood groweth and augmenteth, and in summer coler, in | September melancholy, and in | winter phlegm. Then we fast in March for to attemper and depress the blood of | concupiscence disordinate, for sanguine | of his nature is full of fleshly concupiscence. In summer we fast | because that coler should be | lessened and refrained, of which cometh wrath. And then is he full naturally of | ire. In harvest we fast for | to refrain melancholy. The melancholious man naturally is cold, covetous and | heavy. In winter we fast | for to daunt and to make feeble the phlegm of lightness and forgetting, for such | is he that is phlegmatic. The | sixth reason is for the printemps is likened to the air, the summer to fire, | harvest to the earth, and the | winter to water. Then we fast in March to the end that the air of pride be | attempered to us. In summer | the fire of concupiscence and of avarice. In September the earth of coldness and | | | of the darkness of ignorance. | In winter the water of lightness and inconstancy. The seventh reason is | because that March is reported | to infancy, summer to youth, September to steadfast age and virtuous, and | winter to ancienty or old age. | We fast then in March that we may be in the infancy of innocency. In summer | for to be young by virtue | and constancy. In harvest that we may be ripe by attemperance. In winter that we | may be ancient and old | by prudence and honest life, or at least that we may be satisfied to God of that which | in these four seasons we | have offended him. The eighth reason is of Master William of Auxerre. We | fast, saith he, in these four | times of the year to the end that we make amends for all that we have failed in all | these four times, and they | be done in three days each time, to the end that we satisfy in one day that which | we have failed in a month; | and that which is the fourth day, that is Wednesday, is the day in which our Lord | was betrayed of Judas; | and the Friday because our Lord was crucified; and the Saturday because he lay in | the sepulchre, and the apostles | were sore of heart and in great sorrow. The Passion of our Lord. | The passion of our Lord was | bitter for the sorrow that he suffered in derisions despitous and of many filths | fructuous. The sorrow was cause | of five things. The first, because it was shameful, for the place of the | Mount of Calvary, whereas malefactors | and criminal persons were put to execution, and he was there put to | death right foul. The cross | was the torment of thieves, and if the cross was then of shame and of villainy, she | is now of glory and of honour. |Wherefore saith S. Austin: Crux latronum qui erat supplicium, etc. The | cross which was the justice | of thieves is now become the sign of glory in the foreheads or fronts of | | | emperors. And if he had such | honour at his torment, what did he to his servant for the shameful fellowships | that he did to him? For he was | set with malefactors, but the one of them was converted, which was called | Dismas, like as it said in the | gospel of Nicodemus. And he was on the right side of our Lord, and that other on the left side | was damned, which was | called Gesmas. So that one then he gave the realm of heaven, and to that other hell. | Whereof saith S. Ambrose: | Auctor pietatis in cruce, etc. He saith the author of pity hanging on the cross divided | offices of pity in secular | errands; that is to say, the persecution to the apostles, peace to his disciples, his | body to the Jews, his spirit | to the Father, to the Virgin the messages of the wedding of the sovereign spouse, to | the thief paradise, to sinners | hell, and to christian penitent he commanded the cross. Lo! this is the | testament that Jesu Christ | made hanging on the cross. Secondly, the sorrow was caused unjustly, for none | iniquity was found in him. | And principally, unjustly they accused him of three things. The first was they said | that he defended to pay | the trewage; and for he said that he was a king; and he said him to be the Son of God. | And against these three |accusations we say on the Good Friday three excusations in the person of Jesu Christ | when we sing: Popule meus, | where Jesu Christ reproved them of three benefits that he did and gave to | them, that is to wit the | deliverance of them from Egypt, the sustentation and governance in the desert, and the | plantation of the vine in | a land propice. Like as Jesu Christ would say: Thou I accuses me because that I | | | defend to pay thy trewage, | and thou oughtest more to thank me of that I have delivered thee from the trewage | and from the servitude | of Pharaoh and of Egypt; thou accusest me that I call myself King, and thou oughtest | better to yield me thankings | of that which I governed thee in the desert with meat royal; thou accusest me of | this that I say me to be the | Son of God, and thou oughtest more to thank me that I have chosen thee to be | in my vineyard, and in a | right good place I have planted thee. The third cause is because he was despised and | forsaken of his friends, which | seemed a thing more tolerable to be suffered of his enemies than of them | whom he held to be his friends. | And alway he suffered death for his friends and neighbours, that is of them of | whose lineage he was born. | This said he by the mouth of David: Amici mei et proximi, etc.: My friends and | my neighbours have approached | against me and so have continued. Whereof said Job, capitulo xix.; Noti mei | quasi alieni recesserunt a me: | My neighbours that knew me, as strangers have left me. Item, he suffered of them | to whom he had done much good. | Like as S. John recordeth, Johannis viii.: I have wrought many good | things to you. And hereto saith | S. Bernard: O good Jesus, how sweetly hast thou conversed with men, and | how great things in the most | abundant wise hast thou granted to them. How hard and sharp things hast thou | suffered for them, hard words, | harder strokes and beatings, and most hard torments of the cross, | nevertheless they render and | yield to thee contrary. The fourth cause is for the tenderness of his body. Whereof | | | David saith in figure of | him in the second book of Kings: He is like as that most tender worm of the wood. | Whereof saith S. Bernard: O | ye Jews, ye be stones, but ye smite a better stone, whereof resoundeth the sound | of pity and boileth the oil | of charity. And S. Jerome saith: He is delivered to knights for to be beaten, and | their beatings have cruelly | wounded and torn the most precious body, in whose breast the Godhead was hid. | The fifth cause was because it | was general, for it was over all, that is to say over all his body, and in all the | natural wits of his body. | And first the sorrow was in his eyes, for he wept tenderly as S. Paul saith in his Epistle | ad Hebreos. Twice he ascended | on high that he might be far heard. He cried strongly because none should be | excused. He added thereto | weeping that we should have compassion, and to tender our hearts, and he had wept | tofore two times also. One | time when he raised Lazarus, and that other time when he approached Jerusalem he | wept. The first tears were | of love, whereof is said in the Gospel: Behold how he loved him ! The second were of | compassion upon Jerusalem. | But in this third weeping the tears were of sorrow. Secondly, the sorrow was in | hearing with his ears the reproofs | and villanies that was said to him and blasphemed. Jesu Christ in especial had | four things in which he | heard blasphemy and reproofs, for he had right excellent noblesse. As to the nature | divine, he was son of the King, | perpetual sovereign, and as to the nature human he was born of the lineage royal. | And as to this he was also | King of Kings and Lord of Lords. He was also sovereign truth. For he is the way, | | | the life, and the truth. | Whereof he said himself: Thy word is truth. The Son of God, that is the word of God | the Father, he hath also | sovereign power above all other. For none may surmount him, for all things been | made by him and nought is made | without him. He hath also singular bounty, for there is none good of himself | but God only. And in | these four things here, Jesu Christ had opprobriums and blasphemies. First as to his | noblesse, whereof is sa persevered | not; for he made his question saying: What is truth? But he abode not the | solution, nor he was not worthy | to hear it. S. Austin saith that he abode not the solution, because that so | soon as he had made the question | it came in his thought that the custom was of the Jews that one should be | delivered to them at Paske. | And there fore he went out anon and abode not the solution. The third cause is | after S. John Chrysostom: | For the question was so great, difficulty, that he had need of long time to advise | and to discuss it. And he laboured | for the deliverance of Jesu Christ, and therefore he issued out anon. | Nevertheless it is read in the gospel | of Nicodemus that Jesu Christ answered: Veritas de celo est. And Pilate | said: In earth is no truth. | And Jesus said to him: How may be truth in earth which in earth is judged of them | that have power in earth? | Fourthly, he suffered blasphemy as to his bounty and goodness. For they said | that he was a man sinner | and deceiver in his words, Luke xxiii.: He hath moved the common people with | his doctrine, in beginning | from Galilee, hither, and hath broken the commandments of the law, for he keepeth | | | not the Sabbath day, | Johannis nono. Thirdly, the sorrow was in smelling of ordure and filth. For he might smell | great stench on the mount | of Calvary whereas were the bodies of dead men stinking, whereof is said in | Scholastica Historia that | Calvary is the bone of the head all bare. And because that many were there | | | beheaded, and many skulls | of heads were there sparteled all openly, they said that it was the place of | Calvary. Fourthly the sorrow in | tasting, whereof he cried: Sitio! I am athirst! There was given to him | vinegar meddled with myrrh | and gall, to the end that he should the sooner die, and the keepers might the sooner | depart and go thence. For | it is said by vinegar men die much soone. And with this also they gave to him myrrh | for to have the more pain, | for the bitterness of the myrrh and of the gall. Whereof saith S. Austin: His | purity was fulfilled with | vinegar instead of wine, his sweetness with gall; the innocent is set for guilty, and | the life dieth for death. | Fifthly, the sorrow was in touching, for in all the parts of his body he was touched | and wounded, from the plant | of his foot unto the top of his head was none whole place. And how he suffered | sorrow in all his natural | wits S. Bernard telleth, that saith: The head that made angels to tremble is pierced | and pricked with the quality | of sharp thorns. The visage which was most fair of all other members is fouled by | spit, and hurt with the thorns | of the Jews. The eyes more shining than the sun be extinct in the death. The | ears hear not the song of | the angels but the assaults of the sinners. The mouth that teacheth and enseigneth the | angels, is made drink vinegar | and gall. The feet, of whom the steps be worshipped, be attached with nails | to the cross. The hands | that formed the heavens be stretched on the cross, and nailed with nails. The body | is beaten, the side is pierced | with a spear, and what more may be said? There abode nothing save the tongue | | | for to pray for the sinners, | and for to recommend his mother to his disciple. Secondly, his passion was | despised of mockeries and | derisions of the Jews. For four times he was mocked. First, at the house of | Ananias where he received | spittings, buffets and blindfolding, of the Jews. Whereof S. Bernard saith: | Right sweet and good Jesus | thy desirous visage which angels desire to see, the Jews with their spittings have | defiled, with their hands | have smitten, with a veil fortorn they have covered, nor they have not spared to | hurt it with bitter wounds. | Secondly, he was mocked in the house of Herod, which reputed him for a fool, and | aliened from his wit, because | he might have of him none answer. And by derision he was clad with a white | vesture, whereof saith S. Bernard: | Tu es homo, etc.- He saith thus: Thou art a man and hast a chaplet of flowers, | and I am God and have a | chaplet of thorns. Thou hast gloves on thine hands, and I have the nails fixed in my | hands. Thou dancest in white | vestures, and I God am mocked and vilipended, and in the house of Herod had | received a white vesture. | Thou dancest and playest with thy feet, and I with my feet have laboured in great pain. | Thou liftest up thine arms | in joy, and I have stretched them in great reproof. Thou stretchest out thine arms | across in caroling and gladness, | and I stretch mine in the cross in great opprobrium and villainy. Thou hast | thy side and thy breast | open in sign of vain glory, and I have mine opened with a spear. Nevertheless return to | me and I shall receive thee. | But why and wherefore Jesus in the time of his passion before Herod Pilate and the Jews was | | | thus still and spake not, | there be three reasons and causes. The first was because they were not worthy to hear his answer. | The second was because | Eve sinned by speaking, and Jesus would make satisfaction by being still and not | speaking. The third is because | that all that ever he answered, they perverted it. Thirdly, Jesus was mocked | in the house of Pilate. For | they clad him with a red mantle, and in his hand they took him a reed, and set | upon his head a crown of thorns, | and kneeled on their knees before him saying: Hail, King of the Jews. This | crown was of jonkes of | the sea. And we hold and say that the blood sprang out of his head. Whereof saith S. | the sea. And we hold and say that the blood sprang out of his head. Whereof saith S. | etc. The head precious and divine was pierced with thorns unto the brain of the | soul. There be three opinions | in what place principally the soul hath her place; or in the heart, for the scripture | saith, out of the heart come | the evil thoughts; or in the blood, because the scripture saith, the soul of every one | is in the blood; or in the head, | because the Evangelist saith: When he inclineth his head he rendered his spirit. | And this treble opinion it seemeth | that the Jews had known, for when they would make the soul issue out of | the body, they sought it in | the head, when they thrust the thorns to the brain. They sought it in the blood | when they opened his veins | in the feet and hands. And they sought it in the heart when they pierced his side. | Against these three illusions, | on Good Friday, before the cross is showed, we make three adorations in | saying: Agios, O Theos, | Yskyros, etc., in honouring him three times, like as he was for us mocked and | | | scorned on the cross. Fourthly, | he was scorned on the cross. The princes of the priests with the old men and | masters of the law, clerks and |doctors, said to him: If he be King of Israel, let him descend from the cross now to | the end that we believe in | him. Whereof saith S. Bernard: In that Jesus showed the more great virtue of | patience, he commanded humility, | he accomplished obedience, he performed charity. And in sign of these | four virtues the four corners | of the cross be adorned with precious gems and stones. And in the most | apparent place is charity, | and on the right side is obedience, and on the left side is patience, and beneath | is humility, the root of all | virtues. And all these things that Jesu Christ suffered, S. Bernard gathereth together | saying: I shall, said he, | as long as I shall live remember the labours that he had in preaching, of the travails that | he had in going from one place | to another by land, and from city to city, of his wakings in praying, of his | temptations in fasting, of his | weepings and tears in having compassion, of the awaitings on him in | speaking, in assaying him | and tempting. And at last of the villanies of the spittings, of the mockeries, of the | opprobriums and of the nails. | Thirdly, his passion was profitable and fructuous: the which may be profitable in | three manners. That is to wit | in remission of sin, in gifts of grace, and in demonstration of glory. And these three | things be showed in the title | of the cross. The first is Jesus, the second Nazarenus, and the third Rex | Judeorum, for there shall | we all be kings. Of the profit speaketh S. Austin, saying: Our Lord Jesu Christ hath | put away the sins past, present, | and to come. The sins past in pardoning them; the present in withdrawing men | from them; them to come | in giving grace to eschew the sins. Yet the same doctor saith thus: We ought to praise | and to thank, to love and to | honour him; for by the death of our Saviour and Redeemer we be brought to | life, from corruption to | incorruption, from exile unto our country, from weeping to joy we be called again. | And how well the manner | of our redemption was profitable it appeareth by five reasons. That is to wit, | because it was right acceptable | to appease God, right helping to save us, right effectual to draw to him the | human lineage, right wise | to fight against the enemy of human lineage, and to reconcile us to God. For after | this that S. Anselm saith: | There is nothing more sharp ne more strong that a man may suffer by his proper will, | without it be of God, | than to suffer death with his own proper will for the honour of God. Ne no man may | better give to God to his | honour than give himself to death for him. And this is that the apostle saith ad | Ephesios v. Our Lord hath | given himself in to oblation and sacrifice for us in to the odour of sweetness to God | the Father. And how he | was sacrificed that was in us appeasing God, S. Austin in the book of the Trinity | saith thus: What thing may | be more graciously and pleasantly received than the flesh of our sacrifice, | which was made the precious | body of our priest. Therefore four things ought to be considered in all | sacrifice: First, him to whom | it is offered, that which is offered, him that offereth, and him for who the offering | is offered. He himself is | the moyen of both two; or that is to say God and man, he was himself that did offer, | and he was himself that | was offered. And the same doctor saith yet of this sacrifice, how we be to God | reconciled: Jesu Christ is the | priest and the sacrifice, he is God and also he is the temple, he is the priest by | whom we be reconciled, | God, to whom we be reconciled, and the temple in whom we be reconciled, | the sacrifice of whom we be | reconciled. And S. Austin saith, considering them that despise this reconciliation, | and set nought thereby, he | saith in the person of Jesu Christ in reproving them: When thou wert enemy to my | Father I have reconciled thee; | when thou wert far I bought thee again; when thou wert taken I came for to | redeem thee; when among | the mountains and the forests thou wert out of the way, I sought thee, to the end that | | | of the wolves nor of the evil | beasts thou wert not eaten nor all to-torn; I gathered thee and bare thee in mine | arms and delivered thee | to my Father. I laboured, I sweat, I put mine head against the thorns, stretched | mine hands unto the nails, | opened my side to the spear, have shed my blood, and have given over my soul and | life for to join thee to me, | and thou hast departed thyself from me. Secondly, Jesu Christ was right | convenable and necessary for | to save us, and to heal and cure us of our malady and sickness, for because of | the time and of the place and | of the manner of the time, as it appeareth. For Adam was made and sinned in the | month of March, and on | the Friday, which is the sixth day of the week, and therefore God in the month of | March, and on the Friday | would suffer death, and at midday which is the sixth hour. Secondly, for the place | of his passion, the which might | be considered in three manners. For one place either it is common or especial | or singular. The place common | where he suffered was the land of promise. The place especial the mount of | Calvary. The place singular the | cross. In the was in a field about or nigh Damascus. Where it is said, in a | place special, he was there | buried. For right in the place where Jesu Christ suffered death, it is said that Adam | was buried. How well that | this is not authentic, for S. Jerome saith that Adam was buried in Hebron. And also | in the book of Josuah is written | the xiv. chapter: In a place singular he was deceived, that is to wit in the tree, | not in this on which Jesus | suffered death, but in another tree. Thirdly, he was right convenable because | | | of the curing, the which | by manner was semblable to the prevarication by like and contrary. For thus as saith | S. Austin in the book, | e doctrina christiana: By a woman he was deceived, and by a woman he was born a | man, and the man delivered | the men. One mortal delivered the mortal, and the death by his death. And S. | Ambrose saith: Adam was of | the earth a virgin; Jesu Christ was born of the virgin; Adam was made to the | image of God; Jesus was the | image of God; by a woman folly was showed; by a woman wisdom was born. Adam | was naked; Jesu Christ naked. | The death came by the tree, the life by the cross. Adam in desert, and Jesus in | desert, but by the contrary. | For after S. Gregory: Adam sinned by pride, by disobedience and by gluttony, for | he coveted the highness of God. | For the serpent said to them, ye shall be semblable to God, he brake the | covenant of God, and desired | and coveted the sweetness of the fruit by gluttony. And because the manner of the | Saviour ought to be by | the contrary, therefore this manner was right convenable by the humiliation, by the | fulfilling and affliction, or | of the divine volenty. And hereof saith the apostle ad Philippenses; Humiliavit se | ipsum. Thirdly, Jesus was | right profitable to draw to him the human lineage. For one of the world, his free | will saved, might never have | drawn mankind to his love. And how he draweth us to his love S. Bernard saith: | Above all things O good | Jesu give me grace to love thee. And by this thing he drew us most to his love. | That is the chalice good Lord | that thou hast drunken, which was the work our of redemption. This chalice is | thy passion, which lightly | may appropre our love to thee. This is that draweth most pleasantly our devotion, | and justly raiseth it, and soonest | straineth and most vehemently taketh our affection. And where thou | | | lamentest, and thereas thou | despoilest thee of thy rays natural, there shineth most thy pity; there is most clear | thy charity, and there aboundeth | most thy grace. And how also we ought to return to the affiance of him S. | Paul saith, ad Romanos viii.: | He spared not his own Son, but for us all he delivered him. Therefore S. | Bernard saith: Who is he that | is not ravished to hope of affiance which taketh none heed to the disposition of | his body? He hath his head | inclined to be kissed, the arms stretched to embrace us, his hands pierced to give | to us, the side open | to love us, the feet fixed with nails for to abide with us, and the body stretched all for | to give to us. | Fourthly, he was right wise and well advised for to fight against the enemy of the human lineage. Job | xxvi.: His wisdom hath | smitten the proud man, and after, may ye not take the fiend with an hook? Jesu | Christ hath hid the hook | of his divinity under the meat of our humanity, and the fiend would take the meat of | the flesh, and was taken | with the hook of the Godhead. Of this wise taking, saith S. Austin, our Redemption is | come and the deceiver is vanquished. | And what did our Redemptor? He laid out his bait to our deceiver and | adversary; he hath set forth | his cross; and within he hath set his meat, that is his blood. For he would shed | his blood not as a debtor, | and therefore, he departed from the debtors. And this debt here the apostle calleth | chirographe or obligation, the | which Jesu Christ bare and attached it to the Cross. Of which Saint Austin | saith: Eve took of the fiend | sin by borrowing by usury, and wrote an obligation. She laid it for pledge, and the | | | usury is augmented, and | grew unto all the remnant of the lineage. Then took Eve of the fiend sin, when | against the commandment she consented | to him. She wrote the obligation when she put her hand to the tree | against the defence of God. | She delivered pledge when she made Adam to consent to the sin, and thus the | usury grew and augmented | unto the remainder of all the lineage. Against them that reck nothing of this | redemption Saint Bernard saith | in the person of Jesu Christ: My people, saith Jesu, what might I have done | for thee that I have not done | to thee? What cause is there that ye serve sooner the devil, our adversary, than | me? For he hath not created | ne hath nourished you. But this seemeth a little thing to them that be full of | ingratitude. I have redeemed | you and not he, and for what price? Not with gold ne silver, ne of the sun, ne of | the moon, ne with any of the | angels, but with my proper blood. And after consider, if of right for so many | benefits ye ought to choose | to have my company. And if ye will all leave me, at the least come with me for to | win a penny a day. And because | they delivered Jesu Christ to death, that is to wit Judas for avarice, the Jews | for envy, and Pilate for dread. | And therefore it is to see what pain was delivered to them of God for this sin. | But of the pain and of the birth | of Judas thou shalt find in the legend of S. Matthew, of the pain and ruin of the | Jews, in the legend of S. James | the Less, and of the pain of Pilate and his birth thou shalt find in one | apocryphum whereas it is | said in this manner. There was a king called Tyrus which knew carnally a | | | maid called Pilam, which | was daughter of a miller named Atus. And of this daughter he engendered a son. | She took her name and the | name of her father, which was called Atus, and composed thus of their names one | name to her son, and named | him Pilatus. And when he was three years old she sent him to the king. And the | king had a son of the queen, | which seemed to be of the age of Pilate. And these two sons when they were of age | of discretion, oft they fought | together, and with the sling they played oft. And the king's son also, which | was legitimate, was more | noble, and in all feats he knew more, and more was set by because of his birth. | And Pilate seeing this was | moved of envy and wrath and privily slew his brother. The which thing the king | heard say, and was much | angry, and demanded of his council what he might do and make of this trespass and | homicide. The which all with | one voice said that he was worthy to suffer death. And the king would not double | the pain and punition, | but because he owed to the Romans yearly a tribute, he sent him in hostage to the | Romans, as well for to be | quit of the death of his son, and that he should not be constrained to put him to | death, as well as for to be quit | of the tribute that he owed to Rome. And this time was at Rome one of the | sons of the king of France, | which was also sent for trewage. And when Pilate saw him, he anon | accompanied with him, and | saw that he was praised before him for the wit and for the manners that were in | him. Pilate slew him also. | And when the Romans demanded what should be done in this matter, they | | | answered that he which had | slain his brother and estranged him that was in hostage, if he might live | should be yet much profitable | to the common weal, and should daunt the necks of them that were cruel and | wood. And then said the | Romans, that sith he was worthy to die he should be sent into an isle of the sea | named Ponthus, to them | that will suffer no judge over them, to the end that his wickedness may overcome and | judge them or else that | he suffer of them like as he hath deserved. Then was Pilate sent to this cruel people and | wild, which before had | slain their judge. And it was told to him to what people he was sent, and that he | should consider how his | life was hanging, and in great jeopardy. He went considering his life and thought to | keep it, and did so much | that by menaces and promises to torment as by gifts, that he subdued them all and put | them in subjection. And |because he had victory of this cruel people, he was named of this Isle of Pontus, | Pontius Pilate. And when | Herod heard his iniquities and his frauds he had great joy thereof. And because he | was wicked himself, he | would have wicked with him, and sent for him by messengers and by promise of gifts | that he came to him, and | gave him the power upon the realm of Judæa and Jerusalem. And when he had | assembled and gathered together | much money, he went to Rome without knowing of Herod, and offered right | great sums of money to the | Emperor for to get to himself that which Herod so held. And so he got it. And | for this cause Herod and | Pilate were enemies unto the time of the passion of Jesu Christ, whom Pilate sent to | | | Herod. Another cause of | enmity is assigned in Scholastica Historia: There was one that said himself to | be God, and had deceived | many of Galilee, and brought the people into Garizim where he said that he would go | up to heaven. And Pilate | came upon them, and when he had knowledge of the deed he slew him and all his | | | people, because he doubted | that he would have deceived them of Judæa. And therefore were they | enemies together, for Herod | reigned in Galilee. And when Pilate had delivered Jesu Christ to the Jews | for to be crucified he doubted | the Emperor that he should be reproved of that which he had judged an | innocent, and sent a friend | of his for to excuse him. And in this while Tiberius the Emperor fell into a | grievous malady. And it | was told to him that there was one in Jerusalem that cured all manner maladies. And | he knew not that Pilate | and the Jews had slain him. He said to Volusian, which was secret with him: Go into | the parts over sea, and say | to Pilate that he send to me the leech or master in medicine for to heal me of my | malady. And when he | was come to Pilate and had said his message, Pilate was much abashed, and demanded | fourteen days of dilation, | in which time Volusian found an old woman named Veronica which had been familiar | and devout with Jesu Christ. | He demanded of her where he might find him that he sought. She then escried and | said: alas! Lord God, | my Lord, my God was he that ye ask for, whom Pilate damned to death, and whom the | Jews delivered to Pilate | for envy, and commanded that he should be crucified. Then he complained him | sorrowfully, and said: I | am sorry because he may not accomplish that which my lord the Emperor hath | charged me. To whom Veronica | said: My lord and my master when he went preaching, I absented me oft from | him, I did do paint his image, | for to have alway with me his presence, because that the figure of his image | | | should give me some solace. | And thus as I bare a linen kerchief in my bosom, our Lord met me, and demanded | whither I went, and when I told | him whither I went and the cause, he demanded my kerchief, and anon he | emprinted his face and figured | it therein. And if my lord had beholden the figure of Jesu Christ devoutly he | should be anon guerished | and healed. And Volusian asked: Is there neither gold ne silver that this figure | may be bought with? She | answered: Nay, but strong of courage, devout and of great affection, I shall go with | thee and shall bear it to | the Emperor for to see it, and after I shall return hither again. Then went Volusian | with Veronica to Rome and | said to the Emperor: Jesus of Nazareth, whom thou hast long desired, Pilate and | the Jews by envy and with | wrong, have put to death, and have hanged him on the cross. And a matron, a | widow, is come with me | which bringeth the image of Jesus, the which if thou with good heart and devoutly | wilt behold, and have therein | contemplation, thou shalt anon be whole. And when the Emperor had heard this, | he did anon make ready the | way with cloths of silk, and made the image of Jesus to be brought before him. And | anon as he had seen it and | worshipped it he was all guerished and whole. Then he commanded that Pilate | should be taken and brought | to Rome. And when the Emperor heard that Pilate was come to Rome, he was | much wroth, and inflamed | against him, and bade that he should be brought tofore him. Pilate ware always the | garment of our Lord which | was without seam, wherewith he was clad when he came before the | | | Emperor. And as soon as | the Emperor saw him all his wrath was gone, and the ire out of his heart; he could | not say an evil word to him. | And in his absence he was sore cruel towards him, and in his presence he was | always sweet, and debonair | to him, and gave him licence and departed. And anon as he was departed he | was as angry and as sore | moved as he was before, and more because he had not showed to him his fury. Then | he made him to be called | again, and sware he should be dead. And anon as he saw him his cruelty was all gone, | whereof was great marvel. | Now was there one by the inspiration of God, or at the persuasion of some | Christian man, caused the Emperor | to despoil him of that coat. And anon as he had put it off, the Emperor | had in his heart as great | ire and fury as he had before, wherefore the Emperor marvelled of this coat, and it | was told to him that it |was the coat of Jesus. Then the Emperor made Pilate to be set in prison till he had | counselled what he should | do with him. And sentence was given that he should die a villain's death. And when | Pilate heard the sentence, | he took a knife and slew himself. And when the Emperor heard how he was | dead, he said: Certainly he | is dead of a right villainous death and foul, for his own proper hand hath not spared | him. Then his body was taken | and bounden to a millstone and cast in the river of Tiber for to be sunken | in to the bottom. And the | ill spirits in the air began to move great tempests and marvellous waves in the water, | and horrible thunder and lightning | whereof the people was sore afraid and in great doubt. And therefore the | | | Romans drew out the body | and in derision sent it to Vienne and cast it in to the river named Rhone. Vienne | is as much to say as hell, | which is said Gehenna, for then it was a cursed place, and so there is his body in | the place of malediction. | And the evil spirits be as well there as in other places, and made such tempests as they | did before, insomuch that | they of that place might not suffer it. And therefore they took the vessel wherein the | body was, and sent it for | to bury it in the territory of the city of Lausanne. The which also was tempested as the | other. And it was taken thence | and thrown into a deep pit all environed with mountains. In which place, after | the relation of some, be | seen illusions, and machinations of fiends be seen grow and boil. And | hitherto is this story called | apocryphum read. They that have read this, let them say and believe as it shall please | them. Nevertheless in Scholastica | Historia is read that Pilate was accused before the Emperor Tiberius because he | did put to death by violence | them that were innocent, by his might; and that maugre the Jews he did images of | paynims in the Temple, | and that the money put in corbanam he took, and did withal his profit, and was | proved in his visage that | he made in his house alleys and conduits for water to run in. And for these things | he was sent to Lyons in exile | for to die among the people of whom he was born. And this may be well | supposed that this history | be true. For tofore was the edict given that he should be put in exile to Lyons, and | that he was exiled ere | Volusian returned to the Emperor. But when the Emperor heard how he had made our | Lord Jesu to die he made him | from his exile to come to Rome. Eusebius and Bede in their chronicles say not | that he was imprisoned | and put in exile, but because that he fell in many miseries by despair he slew himself | with his own hand. | Here beginneth the Resurrection. Heretofore we have made mention of deviation of the | human lineage, which dureth | from Septuagesima unto Easter. Hereafter we shall make mention of the time of reconciliation. | The resurrection of our Lord Jesu | Christ was the third day after his death. And of this blessed resurrection | seven things be to be considered. | First, of the time that he was in the sepulchre, that be three days and three | nights he was in the sepulchre, | and the third day he arose. Secondly, wherefore he arose not anon when he | was dead, but abode unto | the third day. Thirdly, how he arose. Fourthly, wherefore his resurrection tarried not | until the general resurrection. | Fifthly, wherefore he arose. Sixthly, how ofttimes he appeared in his | resurrection. And the seventh, | how the holy fathers which were enclosed in a part of hell he delivered, and | what he did, etc. As to | the first point, it ought to be known that Jesus was in the sepulchre three days and | three nights. But, after S. | Austin, the first day is taken by synechdoche, that is that the last part of the day is | taken which dureth from | Easter unto the utas of Whitsuntide, like as holy Church hath ordained. The | second day is taken all | whole. The third is taken after the first part of the day. Thus there be three days, and | every day hath his night going | before. And after Bede the order of the day was changed, and the course | ordained, for before, the | days went before and the nights followed, after the time of the passion that order | was changed, for the nights | go before, and this is by mystery. For man first overthrew in the day and fell into | the night of sin. And by the passion | nd resurrection of Jesu Christ he came again from the night of sin unto the | | day of grace. As touching the second consideration, it ought to be known that it is according | to reason that anon after | his death he ought not to arise, but ought to abide unto the third day, and for five reasons. The first | for the signification to that | that the light of his death should cure our double death, and therefore one day | whole and two nights, he | lay in the sepulchre, that by the day we understand the light of his death, and by the | | | two nights our double death. | And this reason assigneth the gloss upon S. Luke, Luce vicesimo upon this text. | Oportebat Christum pati, etc. | The second for certain probation. For right so as in the mouth of twain or of | three is the witness established, | right so in three days is proved all deed and fait veritable. And to the end to | prove that his death was | veritable, he would lie therein three days. The third for to show his puissance; for if he | had arisen anon, it should | seem that he had not such might for to give him life as he had to raise him. And | this reason toucheth the | Apostle ad Corinthios xv. Therefore is there first made mention of his death. Like | as his death was verily showed | so his very resurrection is showed and declared. Fourthly, for to figure the | restoration. And this reason | assigneth Petrus Ravenensis: Jesu Christ would be three days in his | sepulchre in figure, in | benefit doing. That is to wit, to restore them that be fallen, to repair them that be in the | earth, and to redeem them |that were in hell. The fifth, for the representing of treble estate of rightful men. And | this reason assigneth S. Gregory | upon Ezechiel saying: The sixth day of the week Jesus suffered death, the | Saturday he lay in the sepulchre, | the Sunday he arose. The present life is yet to us the sixth day, for in | anguishes and sorrows we | be tormented. The Saturday also is that we rest us in our sepulchre, for after the | death we shall find the rest | for our souls. The Sunday is the eighth day. That day we shall be free of the death | and of all sorrow in body | and in soul in glory. Then the sixth day is to us sorrow, the seventh rest, and the | | | eighth glory. As to the third | consideration, how he arose, it appeareth verily that he arose mightily. For by his | proper might he arose, Johannis | nono: Potestatem habeo, etc. I have said I have power to deliver my soul | and I have power to resume | it again. That is to say to die when I will. Secondly, he arose joyously, for he | took away all misery, all | infirmity, and all servitude. Whereof he saith the gospel of John, Johannis xxvi., he | said: When I shall arise again | I shall advance me and go tofore you into Galilee, where ye shall see me free and | delivered. Galilee is as | much to say as transmigration, that is to say dying. Jesu Christ then, when he arose, | went before us, for he | went from misery to glory, and from corruption to incorruption. Whereof S. Leo the | Pope saith: After the passion | of Jesu Christ, the bonds of death broken, he was transported from infirmity to | virtue, from mortality to | perpetuity, and from villainy to glory. Thirdly, he rose profitably, for he carried with | him his prey. Whereof | saith Jeremy the fourth chapter, Ascendit leo de cubili, etc. The lion is risen out of his | bed. Jesus ascended on | high upon the cross, and the robber of the people enhanced himself. Jesu Christ | robbed hell, wherein was | the human lineage. As he had said: Cum exaltatus fuero, etc. When I shall ascend on | high I shall draw to me | all mine of whom hell hath holden and kept the souls, which were enclosed in | darkness and the bodies in |sepulture. Fourthly, he arose marvellously. For he arose without opening of the | sepulchre which abode fast | closed. For like as he issued out of his mother's belly, and to his disciples, the | | | doors closed and shut, | so he issued out of his sepulchre. Whereof is read in Scholastica Historia, of a | monk of S. Laurence without | the walls, in the year of the Incarnation of our Lord one thousand one hundred | and eleven, which marvelled | of a girdle with which he was girt, that without undoing or opening it was cast | tofore him. Whereof when | he saw it he marvelled, and he heard a voice in the air saying: Thus may Jesu Christ | issue out of his sepulchre, | and the sepulchre all closed. Fifthly, he arose truly, for he arose in his proper body, | and by six manners he showed | that he was verily risen. First, by the angel which lied not. Secondly, by many | and ofttimes appearing. Thirdly, | by eating openly and by no art fantastic. Fourthly, by palpation of his very | body. Fifthly, by ostention | of his wounds, by which he showed that it was the proper body in which he had | verily suffered death. Sixthly, | by his presence in coming into the house, the gates shut, when he entered | suddenly and invisibly, by | which he showed that his body was glorified. Seventhly, he arose immortally, for | he shall never die, Johannis vi.: | Christus resurgens, etc. And S. Denis in an epistle that he made to Demophilus | saith that Jesu Christ after | his ascension said to an holy man named Carpo, I am all ready yet to suffer for to | save man; by which it seemeth | that if it were need, that yet he were ready to suffer death as it is contained in | the same epistle. This holy | man, Carpo, told to S. Denis that a paynim perverted a Christian man and brought | him out of the faith. And | this Carpo took such anger therefore in his heart that he was sick. And this Carpo | | | was of so great holiness | that as oft as he sang mass an heavenly vision appeared to him. But when he should | pray for the conversion of | them both daily, he prayed God that both twain might be burnt in a fire. And on a | time about midnight he | made this prayer unto God, and suddenly the house in which he was in, was divided in | two parts, and a right great | furnace appeared there. And he looked up and beheld the heaven, and saw it open, | and Jesu Christ which | was environed with a great multitude of angels, and beside the furnace these two | men were trembling for great | dread that they had; the which men were bitten of serpents that issued out of the | furnace, which drew them by | force into the furnace; and also of other men they were reproved and villained. And | this holy man Carpo in | beholding them had great delight, and took pleasaunce in their punition; in such | wise that he left the vision | of heaven and set not thereby, but was angry that they fell not suddenly into | the furnace. And then as | he looked up into heaven, he saw the vision that he had before seen. And Jesu Christ | which had pity of these two | men arose up out of his throne, and came unto them with a great multitude of | angels, and put forth his | hand and delivered them. And Jesus said to Carpo: Smite me, from henceforth I am | ready to suffer for to save | man. This ensample reciteth S. Denis. As to the fourth article, wherefore he abode | not until the general resurrection, | three reasons be assigned. The first for the dignity of his body, for he | was deified and came from | the Deity, and therefore it was no reason that his body should so long lie in the | earth. Whereof David saith, | Non dabis sanctum tuum videre corruptionem: Thou shalt not suffer thine holy | body to see corruption. The | second reason is for the steadfastness of the faith. For if he had not then arisen, | the faith had perished, | men would not have believed that he had been very God. And that appeareth well, for | in his passion, save our Lady, | all lost faith. But when they had knowledge of his resurrection they recovered | it again, as saith S. Paul, | Si Christus non surrexerit vane est fides nostra: If Jesu Christ had not risen our | faith had been vain or none. | The third cause for the exemplar of our resurrection: there should be but few | that should believe the resurrection | to come if Jesu Christ had not risen. And this is our example and our | hope. And therefore say | the apostles, Jesu Christ is arisen and we shall arise, for his resurrection is cause of | ours. Whereof saith S. Gregory: | Our Lord by example hath showed that he promised in reward, as that we | should know him to have risen. | Thus in ourself we should have hope of the reward of his resurrection, and | we ought to know that Jesu | Christ would not prolong his resurrection above three days, to the end that | desperation should not be |in the world. As to the fifth article, it is wherefore he arose. He arose for four things | much profitable to us; | for his resurrection made the justification of our sins. She enseigneth new life of | manners, she engendereth the | hope of reward, and ordaineth the resurrection of all. Of the first saith S. | Paul ad Romanos: Jesu Christ | died for our sins and arose for to justify us. Of the second: Like as Jesu | Christ arose by the glory | of the Father, which is a new glorious life, so ought we in spiritual life to take new | manners. Of the third: By |his great mercy God hath raised us in hope of life by the resurrection of Jesu | Christ. Of the fourth it is | said to us in Scripture: Jesu Christ arose from death, for by man is death come to | men, and by man, that is Jesu | Christ, the life is come to men. Thus be they the first of dead men. Adam of them | that died, and Jesu Christ | of them that be alive by his resurrection. And thus it appeareth that Jesu Christ had | four properties in his resurrection. | The first is, that our resurrection is deferred unto the last resurrection, and | Jesu Christ arose the third day. | As saith the gloss upon this psalm: Ad vesperum demorabitur fletus, etc.: At | evensong time shall be | weeping, and on the morn gladness and joy. The gloss saith that the resurrection | | | of Jesu Christ is cause | sufficient of the resurrection of souls in this present time, and of the bodies in time to | come. The second property | is, that we rise by him, and he arose by himself. Whereof saith S. Ambrose: How | might he seek help to raise | his body, which raised other? The third property is, that we become dust or | ashes, and his body might | not be turned into ashes. The fourth property is, that his resurrection is cause | sacramental of our resurrection. | As touching the sixth article, how oft he appeared the day of his resurrection. | He appeared five times. | First to Mary Magdalene, Marci ultimo. After his resurrection he appeared first to | Mary Magdalene, which is figure | of penitents. And for five reasons he appeared to her. First, for she loved him | most ardently. Because she | loved so much, God forgave and pardoned her many sins. Secondly, for to show that | he died for sinners, Matthew ix.: | Non vend vocare, etc.: I came not for to call rightful men but sinners to | penance. Thirdly, for to verify | his word, Matthew xxi.: Amen dico quia meretrices, etc.: To the hypocrites and | pharisees he saith that common | women and the publicans should go before them to the kingdom of | heaven. Fourthly, for because | that like as a woman was messenger of death, so a woman should be messenger | of life, after the gloss. | Fifthly, like as sin abounded, so should grace more abound, like as the apostle saith ad | Romanos v. The second | time he appeared to the three Maries which returned from the monument, when he | said to them: Avete, God | greet you; and then then approached him and held his feet. And that is the figure | | | of humble prayers. To | whom our Lord appeared, as well for the reason of the nature as for the reason of the | affection. For they held | his feet, which signifieth the affection of the heart. Thirdly he appeared to S. Peter, | but when or in what place | it is not known, but if it were by adventure when he returned from the monument with | S. John. For it might well | be that S. Peter in some place turned from S. John, where God appeared to him, or by | adventure when he was alone | in the monument. Like as it is said in Scholastica Historia, or peradventure in a | cave or a fosse. For it is read | in the histories, when he renied and forsook our Lord, that he fled into a cave | where as the mountain is | which is called the mountain of the cock; or else after that it is said that he wept | three days continually after | that he had renied God, and there Jesus appeared to him and comforted him, saying: | Peter bear the virtue of obedience, | to whom our Lord showeth him. Fourthly he appeared to his disciples | which went to Emaus, | which is as much as to say as desire of counsel, and signifieth to visit the poor | members of Jesu Christ and | to help them. As it is said in the gospel: Go and sell all that thou hast, and give it | to poor people. Fifthly | he appeared to his disciples which were together in a place closed. And this | signifieth religious men that | be in the world with the gates of their five wits closed. These five apparitions | were the day of his resurrection. | And these five representeth the priest in his mass when he turneth him five times to the people. | But the third turning is in silence, | which signifieth the apparition made to S. Peter, which is not known when it was made | ne in what place. | Sixthly he appeared the eighth day to his disciples when S. Thomas was there, which had said | that he would not believe | it till he had seen the wounds, the nails, and that he had put his hands in his side. The | | | seventh time he appeared | fishing, Johannis ultimo, and that signifieth preachers which be fishers of men. The | eighth time he appeared | to his disciples in the Mount Tabor, Matthew ultimo, and that signifieth them that | been contemplative, for in | the said hill was our Lord transfigured. The ninth time he appeared to eleven | disciples where they sat | at table, whereat he reproved their incredulity and hardness of heart; by which we | understand the sinners in | the eleven number of transgression set, whom our Lord by his mercy | sometime visiteth. The tenth | time he appeared to his disciples in the Mount of Olives by which is signified | them that be full of mercy | and that love compassion, to whom our Lord appeareth, which is Father of mercy | and of pity. From this place | he ascended up into heaven. There be three other manner of apparitions of | which is made mention, which | were made the day of the resurrection, but they be not had in the text of the | gospel. The first was that he | appeared to S. James the Less, which is named James Alphei, of which thou shalt | find in his legend. | The second that he appeared was to Joseph, as it is read in the gospel of Nicodemus. For when the | Jews had heard that | Joseph had demanded the body of Jesus of Pilate, and that he had put it in his monument, they | were angry and had indignation | on him, and took him and put him in a secret place, where diligently they | closed him and kept him, | and would have slain him after their sabbath day. And Jesus the night of his | resurrection entered into the | house where he was in, and overlift up the four corners of the house, and wiped | | | and cleansed his visage and | kissed him. And without breaking of any lock or seal he brought him into his | house in Arimathea. The third | is after that it is believed he appeared unto his mother Mary, the glorious Virgin, | and how be it that the holy | Evangelists speak nothing thereof, the Church of Rome approveth it. For the same | day is made station at our Lady | the major. And if we should not believe because the Evangelists make no | mention thereof, it should | follow that after his resurrection he appeared not to her; but that ought not | to be believed that such | a son should not leave his mother without visiting, and do to her so little honour. | And peradventure the Evangelists | speak no word of her because it appeareth not to them but to set witness of | the resurrection. And the | Virgin Mary ought not to be set in for no witness. For if the words of strange women | were reputed for leasings, | much more should the mother be because of the love that she had to him that | was her son. And though | the Evangelists have not written it, yet they knew well for certain that it is right | that first he should enhance | and comfort her that had most pain and sorrow for his death. And that witnesseth | S. Ambrose in the third book | of Virgins: Vidit Maria, etc.: Mary saw the resurrection and she believed it | perfectly. Mary Magdalene | saw it and yet she doubted it. Of the seventh, how Jesu Christ drew the holy | fathers out of hell, and what | he made there, the Evangelist telleth not clearly. Nevertheless Saint Austin | in a sermon, and Nicodemus | in his gospels, show it somewhat. And Saint Austin saith: Anon as Jesu Christ | | | had rendered the spirit, the | the soul that was united to his Godhead was quick and living in the deepness of hell | descended. And when he | was at deepest of the darkness, like as a robber shining and terrible to the | tyrants of hell, they beheld | him and began to demand and enquire: Who is he that is so strong, so terrible, so | clear and so shining ? | The world, which is to us subject, sent to us never such one dead, ne he sent to us | never such gifts into hell. | Who is he then that is so constant that is entered into the furthest end of our | parts, and he doubteth not | only of our torments, but yet he hath unbound them of their bonds whom we held | and kept? And they that were | wont to wail and weep under our torments, assail us now by their health. And | now not only they fear us, | but now threaten and menace us. And they said to their prince: What prince art thou? | All thy gladness is perished | and all thy joys be converted into weepings. When thou hangedst him in | the cross thou knewest not | what damage thou shouldst suffer in hell. After these cruel words of them of hell, at | the commandment of our | Lord all the locks, all the bars and shuttings been broken, and to-frushed. And lo! the | people of saints that come | kneeling tofore him in crying with piteous voice, saying: Our Redeemer! Thou art | come for to redeem the world, | we have abided thee every day; thou art descended into hell for us, and leave | us not, but that we be with | thee when thou shalt return to thy brethren. Lord sweet God, show that thou hast | despoiled hell, and bind | the author of death with his bonds, render to the world now gladness, and quench | | | the pains; and for thy pity | unbind the caitiffs from servitude whiles thou art here, and assoil the sinners | when thou descendest into hell, | them of thy party. This said Saint Austin. And it is read in the gospel of Nicodemus | that Carinus and Leucius, | sons of old Simeon, arose with Jesu Christ. And they were adjured and sworn of Ananias, of | Caiaphas, of Nicodemus, of | Joseph, and of Gamaliel, that they should tell and say what Jesus did in hell. And | they rehearsed and said: | When we were with our fathers in the place of obscurity and darkness, suddenly it was | all so light and clear as | the colour of the sun, like purple, gold, and light royal, which illumined all the | habitation upon us. And anon | Adam the father of the human lineage began to enjoy, saying: This light is the | light of the creator of the light | sempiternal, which promised to send to us his light perpetual. And Isaiah | cried: This is the light of God | the Father, like as I said living in the earth: The people that were in darkness | saw a great light. Then came | our Father Simeon, and in joying said: Glorify ye our Lord, for I received Christ, a | child born in the world, in to | mine hands in the Temple, and I was constrained by the Holy Ghost to say, Nunc | viderunt oculi mei salutare | tuum: I have now seen with mine eyen thine health which bringeth and hath made it | ready before the face of | all thy people. After, came one which seemed to be an hermit, and when we demanded | him what he was, he answered | that he was John that baptized Christ, and he that am gone before him for to | make ready his way, and | showed him with my finger when I said: Ecce agnus Dei, and am descended for to | | | show to you that he cometh | soon to visit you. Then said Seth: When I came to the gate of Paradise for to pray | our Lord to send me his angel, | and that he would give to me of the oil of mercy for to anoint the body of | Adam my father, which | was sick, the angel Michael appeared to me and said: Labour not in praying by | | | weeping for t things here, | anon they were transfigured and were no more seen. And hereof speaketh Gregory | Nyssen and S. Austin, like | as is found in some books. Anon as Jesu Christ descended into hell, the night | began to wax clear. And | anon the porter black and horrible among them in silence began to murmur, | saying: Who is he that is | so terrible and of clearness so shining? Our master received never none such into hell, | ne the world cast never | none such into our cavern. This is an assailer, and not debtor, a breaker and destroyer, | and no sinner but a despoiler, | we see him a judge but no beseecher, he comes for to fight and not to be | overcome, a caster out and | not here a dweller. Here beginneth the Litanies, the More and the Less | The Litanies be done twice | in the year. The first be done on Saint Mark's day, and that is called the more | Litany. And the second be | done on the three days before the Ascension Day, and is called the lesser Litany. And | Litany is as much to say | supplication or prayer. The first Litany is named in three manners. First, it is called | the more Litany. secondly, | the procession of seven orders. Thirdly, the black cross. Then this Litany is said | the more, for three reasons. | The first is for him that instituted it, that was Saint Gregory the Pope, and that | was at Rome, which is lady | and head of the world, because that the body of the prince of the apostles is | there, and the Holy See. | And also for the reason of the cause wherefore it was instituted, and that was for a | right great and grievous malady. | For as the Romans had in the Lent lived soberly and in continence, and after at | | | Easter had received their Saviour. | After, they disordered them in eating, in drinking, in plays and in lechery. And | therefore our Lord was moved | against them, and sent to them a great pestilence, which was called the botche of | impedimy. And that was cruel | and sudden, and caused people to die in going by the way, in playing, in being | at table, and in speaking one | with another suddenly they died. In this manner sometime sneezing they died, | so that when any person | was heard sneezing anon they that were by said to him: God help you, or Christ help: | and yet endureth the custom. | And also when he sneezeth or gapeth, he maketh tofore his face the sign | of the cross, and blesseth | him; and yet endureth this custom. And how that pestilence began, it is found in | the life of S. Gregory. Secondly, | this Litany is said procession of seven orders, because that when they | were made, S. Gregory ordained |them by seven ordinances. For in the first order was all the clergy, in | the second were the monks and |religious men, in the third were all the nuns, in the fourth all the children, in | the fifth all the lay people, | in the sixth all the women, and in the seventh all they that were married. But | because that now we may not | fulfil in number of persons, we ought to fulfil it in number of Litanies. For | it with black clothes. And | peradventure for that same cause they covered the cross and the altars with blessed | hairs, and thus we should | take on us clothing of penance. There is another Litany, which is called the | lesser Litany, the which | is made the three days tofore the Ascension. And this instituted S. Mamertin, Bishop of | | | Vienne in the time of the | Emperor Leo, which reigned the year of our Lord three hundred and fifty-eight tofore | the institution of the first. | And is said the Litany the less, the rogations and processions. For it is the lesser | Litany to the difference of | the first, because that this lesser Litany was instituted of a lesser, which was a | simple Bishop, in a lesser | place, and for lesser malady. And the cause of the institution was this. For then, at | Vienne, were great earthquakes | of which fell down many churches and many houses, and there was heard | great sounds and great clamours | by night. And then happed a terrible thing on Easter-day, for fire descended | from heaven that burnt the | king's palace. Yet happed more marvellous thing; for like as the fiends had | entered into the hogs, right | so by the sufferance of God for the sins of the people, the fiends entered into | wolves and other wild beasts, | which every one doubted, and they went not only by the ways ne by the fields, but | also by the cities ran openly, | and devoured the children and old men and women. And when the Bishop saw | that every day happed | such sorrowful adventures, he commanded and ordained that the people should fast | three days; and he instituted | the Litanies, and then the tribulation ceased. And from then, forth on, the Church | hath ordained and confirmed | that this Litany should be kept and observed over all. It is said also Rogations, for | then we pray and demand | the suffrages of all the saints, and we thus have good cause for to keep this ordinance | and fast in these days. And | for many reasons it is instituted. First, because it appeaseth the battles, that | | | commonly begin in primetime. | Secondly, because that the fruits which be then tender, that God will multiply. | Thirdly, because that every | man should mortify in himself the movings of his flesh, which in that time | boil. Fourthly, because that | every one dispose himself to receive the Holy Ghost; for by fastings, by orisons, | and by devotion is one more | able and more worthy. But, two other reasons assigneth Master William of Auxerre, | because then, when Jesu | Christ would ascend into heaven he said: Ask ye duly and ye shall have. And we | may the more faithfully | demand when we have the promise of God. Secondly, because that holy Church | fasteth and prayeth that | she have but little flesh, that is to make the body lean by abstinence, and to get wings | by prayer. For prayer is the wing | of the soul by which she fleeth to heaven, to the end that she may follow Jesu Christ | ascending up before us to | show us the way. And know ye that the soul that aboundeth in plenty of flesh, and | hath but few pens and feathers, | he may not well fly. Thus this Litany is called procession, for then the | Church maketh general procession. | And in this procession the cross is borne, the clocks and the bells | be sounded and rung, | the banners be borne, and in some churches a dragon with a great tail is borne. And | aid and help is demanded | of all saints. And the cause why the cross is borne and the bells rung is for to make | the evil spirits afraid and | to flee; for like as the kings have in battles tokens and signs-royal, as their trumpets | and banners, right so the king | of heaven perdurable hath his signs militant in the Church. He hath bells for | business and for trumps, he hath | the cross for banners. And like as a tyrant and a malefactor should much | doubt when he shall hear | the business and trumps of a mighty king in his land, and shall see his banners, in | like wise the enemies, the evil | spirits that be in the region of the air, doubt much when they hear the | trumpets of God which be the bells | rung, and when they see the banners borne on high. And this is the cause | why the bells be rung when | it thundereth, and when great tempests and outrages of weather happen, to the | end that the fiends and the | evil spirits should be abashed and flee, and cease of the moving of tempests. | Howbeit also that there | is another cause therewith; that is for to warn the Christian people, that they put them | in devotion and in prayer, | for to pray God that the tempest may cease. There is also the banner of the King, | that is the cross, which the | enemies dread much and doubt. For they dread the staff with which they have | been hurt. And this is the | reason wherefore in some churches in the time of tempest and of thunder, they set | out the cross against the | tempest to the end that the wicked spirits see the banner of the sovereign king, and | for dread thereof they flee. | And therefore in procession the cross is borne, and the bells rung for to chase and | hunt away the fiends being | in the air, and to the end that they leave to tempest us. The cross is borne for to | represent the victory of the | resurrection, and of the ascension of Jesu Christ. For he ascended into Heaven | with all a great prey. | And thus this banner that flyeth in the air signifieth Jesu Christ ascending into heaven. | And as the people follow |the cross, the banners, and the procession, right so when Jesu Christ styed up into | heaven a great multitude | of saints followed him. And the song that is sung in the procession signifieth the | song of angels and the praisings | that came against Jesu Christ and conducted and conveyed him to heaven | where is great joy and melody. | In some churches, and in especial in them of France, is accustomed to bear a | dragon with a long tail | filled full of chaff or other thing. The two first days it is borne before the cross, and on | the third day they bear it | after the cross, with the tail all void, by which is understood that the first day tofore | the law, or the second under | the law, the devil reigned in the world, and on the third day, of grace, by the | passion of Jesu Christ, he | was put out of his realm. After in this procession singularly we call the suffrages | | | of all the saints. And why | we call to the saints divers reasons be assigned heretofore, but yet there be of the | general, wherefore we pray | the saints. First for our poverty and for the glory of saints, and for the reverence | of God. For the saints | may well know the vows and the prayers of the suppliants. For in the mirror perpetual, | that is Jesu Christ, they | understand how much it appertaineth to their joy and to our profit. Then the first | reason is for our poverty, | and for our misery, or for our default we have some merit, to the end that where our | merits be not sufficient the | suffrages of saints may avail us, or for default that we have in contemplation of God, | and that we may see perfectly | the light sovereign that we see and behold in his saints, or for the default that | we have in loving God, for we | see that some show more greater affection to a saint than they do to God, and | such people be imperfect. The | second reason is for the glory of saints. For God will that we call the saints, | because that by their | suffrages that we require, we glorify them, and the more greatly we praise them. The | third reason is for the | reverence of God, to the end that the sinners that have offended God, the which dare not | approach to God in their persons, | they approach him by the friends of God in demanding their suffrages. And in | these Litanies we ought to | repeat this song of angels: Sancte Deus, sancte fortis, sancte et immortalis | miserere nobis. Item, John Damascene | recordeth in his fourth book that, in Constantinople, for a tribulation | that happed there, there were | litanies made. It happed that a child amid the people was ravished to heaven and | | | this canticle he learned there; | and after then he returned to the people, and in the midst of the people he sang it, | and anon that tribulation | ceased. And after at the Council of Chalcedon this canticle was approved and | the cause concluded. We | know that it is so that the fiends be put out by this canticle: Sancte Deus. Of this | canticle and praising the authority | is approved by four reasons. First, because that an angel taught it first. | Secondly, because at the prolation | and repetition of this canticle, that tribulation ceased. Thirdly, because that | the Council of Chalcedon | approved it. And fourthly, because that the fiends and enemies so much dread and | doubt it. Here beginneth next | the Ascension of our Lord. The Ascension of our Lord Jesu Christ was the fortieth | day after his resurrection; | for which to declare, seven things be to be considered. First then, he ascended. | Secondly, why he ascended | not anon after his resurrection. Thirdly, how he ascended. Fourthly, what | company ascended with him. | Fifthly, by what merit he ascended. Sixthly, where he ascended, and seventhly, | wherefore he ascended. | As to the first he ascended from the mount of Olives by Bethany; the which mountain, | by another relation, is said | the mountain of three lights. For by night on the side of the west it is lighted of the | fire that burneth in the Temple, | which never is put out ne quenched. On the morning it is light of the orient, | for she hath first the rays | of the sun before it shineth in the city, and also it hath great abundance of oil that | nourisheth the light, | and therefore it is said the hill of three lights. Unto this hill Jesu Christ commanded his | disciples that they should go. | For on the day of his Ascension he appeared two times, one time to eleven | disciples that ate in the hall | where they had supped with him. All the apostles and the disciples and also the | | | women, abode in that part | of Jerusalem which is called Mello, in the mountain of Sion, where David had made | his palace. And there was | the great hall arrayed and ordained for to sup, whereas Jesu Christ commanded | that they should make ready | for to eat the Paschal Lamb, and in this place the eleven apostles abode, and | the other disciples, and the | women abode in divers mansions there about. And when they had eaten in this | hall, our Lord appeared to them | and reproved them of their incredulity. And when he had eaten with them, and | had commanded them that | they should go to the Mount of Olivet on the side by Bethany, he appeared again to | them, and answered to them | of the demands that they made to him indiscreetly, and with his hands lifted he | | blessed them; and anon before them he ascended unto heaven. Of the place of this ascension saith | Sulpicius, Bishop of Jerusalem, and | it is in the gloss. For there was edified a church in the place where were made the | signs of his ascension. Never | sith might be set there any pavement, it could not be laid ne set but anon it issued | out, and the stones of the marble | sprang into the visages of them that set it. And that is a sign that they be stones | | | on which Christ passed upon, | which lie in the powder and dust, and abide for a token and sign certain. As to | the second point, wherefore | he ascended not anon after his resurrection, but abode forty days, that was for three reasons. | First, for the certification of his | resurrection. And more strong it was to prove his resurrection than his passion, | for from the first unto the | third the passion might be well proved, but to prove the very resurrection it | required more days, and | therefore a greater time was required between the resurrection and the ascension | than between the passion | and resurrection. And hereof saith Leo the Pope, in a sermon of the ascension: This | day the number of forty | days is complete and dispensed by right holy ordinance and to the profit of our | enseignment and teaching, | to the end that in the space of his presence corporal the faith of teaching was | necessary. And we ought to give | thankings to the divine dispensation for the tardy creance of holy fathers to us | necessary; for they doubted | of that which we doubt not. Secondly, he abode for the consolation of the apostles. | For the consolations divine | surmount the tribulations temporal. And the time of the passion was the time of | tribulation to the apostles, | and therefore there ought to be more days unto the ascension than for the | resurrection. Thirdly, for the | mystery of the comparation, for to give to understand that the | consolations divine be compared | to tribulations as the day unto an hour, and the year unto a day. And that this | be true it appeareth by the writing | of the prophet Isaiah: I shall preach a year pleasant to our Lord, and a day of | | | vengeance to God. Lo! | for one day of tribulation, he rendereth a year of consolation. And that is by | comparison as the day to an | hour. It appeareth by that, that our Lord was dead and lay in the sepulchre forty | hours, which was the time | of tribulation. And by forty days after his resurrection he appeared to his disciples, | which was the time of consolation. | And this saith the gloss: Because that he was forty hours dead, after, he | was forty days living ere | he ascended in to heaven. As to the third point, how he ascended, it appeareth how | that he ascended mightily. | For by his puissance and virtue saith Isaiah, he ascended into heaven, Isaiah xliii. | And also S. John saith: No | man ascendeth into heaven by his own puissance and might, but the Son of Man | that is in heaven. And how be | it that he ascended in a cloud, he had none need, but because that he would | show that every creature is ready | to serve his creator, he ascended in his proper virtue. And in this is the | difference, after that Scholastica | Historia saith, of Jesu Christ, of Enoch and Elijah. For Enoch was translated, | Elijah was borne, but Jesu | Christ by his own might is ascended into heaven. After S. Gregory, the first, that is | to wit Enoch, was engendered | of a man, and he was engendering. The second, that is to say Elijah, was | engendered and not engendering. | The third, that is to wit Jesu Christ, he was born, not engendered of a man | ne engendering. Secondly, | he ascended openly, for seeing his disciples he ascended: whereof it is said | Johannis xvi., Vado ad eum qui | me misit, etc.: I go to my father, and none of you demandeth whither goest | | | thou? the gloss saith: I go | so openly that no man demanded of that they saw at the eye. And therefore he | would ascend in their presence, | because they might bear witness, and that they should enjoy of that they | saw nature human ascend to | heaven, and that they should desire to follow him. Thirdly, he ascended | joyously, for the angels singing | and enjoying, he ascended into heaven in gladness. Whereof saith S. | Austin: Adscendente Christo | paves, etc.: Jesu Christ ascending, the heaven abashed, the stars marvelled, the | company of heaven enjoyed, the | trump sounded, and all the sieges of the pleasant place made melody. Fourthly, | he ascended lightly. Whereof | David saith: He styed up as a giant with a great pace: and much hastily and | lightly he ascended when | he passed so great a space in a moment. Rabbi Moses, which was a great | philosopher, rehearseth that | every circle, or every heaven of each planet, hath the thickness and the way | of five hundred years. | That is to say as one may go in a plain way in five hundred years. And that is the distance | between heaven and heaven, | and between circle and circle, after that which is said so great. And as there be | seven heavens, after his saying, | from the centre of the earth unto the concavity of the heaven of Saturn, which | is the seventh way of seven | thousand years; and unto the concavity of the eighth heaven seven thousand and | seven hundred years, that | is as much space as one could go in plain way in seven thousand and seven hundred | years if a man might live |so long, and that every year be of three hundred and sixtyfive days, and the way of | | | every day be of forty miles, | and every mile be of two thousand paces or cubits, and this said Rabbi Moses, | which was a great philosopher; | if it be truth or no God knoweth, for he that all hath made and created in | certain number, in certain | poise and weight, and in certain measure, he knoweth all. Then this leap or | springing was great that | Jesu Christ made from the earth to heaven. Of this leap, and | divers others leaps of Jesu | Christ, S. Ambrose saith: Jesu Christ came into this world to make a leap; he was with | God the Father, he came | into the Virgin Mary, and from the Virgin Mary into the crib or rack. He descended into | flom Jordan, he ascended | upon the cross, he descended into his tomb. From the tomb he arose, and after | ascended up into heaven, | and sitteth on the right hand of the Father. As to the fourth point, it is with whom he | ascended. He ascended with | a great prey of men and great multitude of angels. And that he ascended up with | the prey of men, it appeareth | by this that David saith: Ascendisti in altum, cepisti captivitatem, etc.: Lord, | thou hast ascended on high | and hast taken them that were captives emprisoned, and the servitude thou hast | affranchised. And also that | he ascended with a great multitude of angels, it appeareth by the interrogations | that the angels made Lord | of the deputations to them beneath. When Jesu Christ ascended into heaven as | Isaiah recordeth, Isaiah Ixiii.: | Quis est iste qui venit de Edom, etc.: Who is he that cometh from Edom with his | clothes dyed, whereas saith | the gloss that some of the angels that knew not plainly the mystery of the | incarnation, of his passion | and of his resurrection, that saw our Lord ascend with all a great multitude of angels | and of saints by his own virtue, | marvelled, and said to the angels that accompanied him: Who is this that | cometh from Edom? And | yet they said: Who is this king of glory, etc. S. Denis in the book of the The Hierarchy | of holy angels in the seventh | chapter saith: Thus seemeth it that he said that three questions were made | to the angels when that Jesus | ascended. The first were the first to themselves, the second were the principals | to Jesu Christ that ascended, | the third were the less to the greatest. Of which they demanded among them: who | is this that cometh from Edom, | his clothes dyed of Bosra? This word Edom is as much to say as full of | blood, and this word Bosra | is to say anguish and tribulation. Thus as they would have said: Who is this | that cometh from the world | full of blood by the sin of the world and of malice against God? And our Lord | answered: I am He that speaketh | in justice. And S. Denis saith thus, that he said: I am he that disputeth | justice and righteousness of | health in the redemption of human lineage. He was justice, inasmuch as he that was | creator brought again his | creatures from the strange jurisdiction, and he was righteousness, inasmuch as the | enemy which had assailed | us he put and cast out of the domination that he had in the human lineage. And after | this maketh S. Denis a question: | Sith the principal angels be nigh to God and be without moyen illumined | of God, wherefore, demanded | they one of the other like as that they would have learned each of other? But he | saith, that giveth this solution, | that in that they demand each of other, as it showeth that they desire to know, | and in that first among | them they had collation, it showed that they durst not advance them tofore the | divine progression. And for | this first, they ought to ask each one other, because that peradventure their | interrogation were not over | hasty upon the illumination that they had received of God without moyen. The | second question is that | which the first and sovereign angel made to Jesu Christ saying: Why is thy clothing | red, and thy vestments as trodden | or fulled in a press? Our Lord hath his clothing and his body red, all | covered with blood, because | that yet when he ascended he had his wounds in his body, after this that Bede | saith: He must keep his |wounds in his body for five reasons, and he said, thus our Lord keepeth his | | | wounds. And to the day | of judgment he shall keep them, to the end that it confirm his resurrection. And | for to pray the Father for | us, he presenteth them, to the end that the good see the great mercy by which he hath | redeemed them, and that the | wicked people may know that righteously they be damned, and that eternally he | bears with him the signs | of his glorious victory perpetual. And to this question answered our Lord: | Torcular calcavi, etc. The | press I have turned and fouled all alone, and of all men. there was not one that would | help me. The press is the | cross, in the which he was pressed in such wise that the blood sprang out. Thus | Jesu Christ called the enemy | the presser, which that thus had wrapped the human lineage with cords of sin, | and quenched him so clean | that he had nothing spiritual, but that it was without expressed, and only he | showed it in the Virgin | Mary. But our champion fought so strongly, and defouled the presser so foul, that he | brake the bonds of sin | and ascended into heaven. And after this he opened the tavern of heaven and poured | out the wine of the Holy | Ghost. The third question is that which the lesser angels made to the greater and | more, in saying: Who is | this king of glory? They answered and said: The lord of virtues, he is the king of | glory. And of this question | of the angels, and of the answer of the other saith S. Austin: All the air is | hallowed in the company divine, | and all the tourbe of devils flying in the air fled backward when Jesu Christ | ascended, to whom the angels | that were in the company of God ran and demanded: Who is this king of glory? | | | And they answered this is | he that was white and coloured as a rose, the which was seen without colour | and without beauty; sick | in the tree, strong in his despoil; foul reputed in his body, well-armed in the | battle; stinging in his death, | fair in his resurrection; white, born of the Virgin, red in the cross; pale in | reproof and clear in heaven. | As to the fifth, it is for what merit he ascended; and we ought to understand | that he ascended in treble merit. | Whereof saith S. Jerome: Jesu Christ ascended in merit of truth, for that | which had he promised by | prophets, he fulfilled in merit of humility and debonairly. For like as he was | sacrificed like a lamb for the life | of the people in merit of justice. But by justice and not only by puissance, but | by justice and by right thou | hast delivered man, and I have withholden of thy puissance, and thy virtue shall | bring thee to heaven. This | said God the Father to the Son. As to the sixth, that is whither he ascended, it | ought to be known that he | ascended above all the heavens, as the apostle saith ad Ephesios quarto: He | that descended from heaven, | that is he that ascended above all the heavens because he fulfilled all things. He | said above all the heavens | because there be many heavens above which he ascended. There is a heaven | material, a heaven rational, | a heaven intellectual and a heaven substantial. There be many heavens material. | The heaven of the air, | which is called æreum; one other called ethereum; another olimpium; another igneum; | another siderum; another crystallinum; | and another empyreum; the heaven reasonable is the man just, | which is said just because | of the divine habitation. For like as heaven is the seat of God as the prophet Isaiah | saith: Cœlum mihi sedes est. | Our Lord saith that the heaven is his seat, right so is the soul of a righteous | | | man. Like as Solomon saith: | The soul of a righteous man is the seat of sapience, by reason of the holy | conversation. For the saints | by holy conversation and desire dwell in heaven. As saith S. Paul: Our | conversation is in heaven | because of continual operation in virtue. For like as the heavens move | continually without resting, | in such manner the saints move always by good works. The heaven intellectual be | the angels, and the angels | be called heaven by reason of dignity and of their understanding. Whereof saith S. | Denis in the book of divine | names, in the fourth chapter. The divine spirits and the angels be above the | creatures which be, and | live above all things that live and understand, and know above all other wits and | reasons, and more than | all other things that be in being, they desire well and good of which they been | participant, that is God. | Secondly, they be right fair because of their nature and of their glory. Of which | beauty saith S. Denis in | the book before alleged: The angel is the manifestation of deeds and will of God by | whom they be showed, | and he is the clearness of dark light, he is a mirror pure and right clear without | receiving of any filth or spot | in him, if it be lawful to say, he is the beauty and the conformity of the bounty | of God. Thirdly, they be right | strong because of their virtue and might, of which strength saith John | Damascene in his second book, | the eighth chapter, where he saith: Fortes sunt et parati, etc. The angels of | God be strong and always | ready to fulfil the will of God, and they be found alway anon where God will | | | have them. The heaven hath | three conditions. It is right high, right fair, and right strong. Of the two first saith | Solomon, Ecclesiastici xliii.: The | firmament is the beauty of the height, and the beauty of heaven is in the | sight of glory. The heaven | is substantial, that is the quality of the divine excellence of which Jesu Christ | came, and after this he ascended. | Whereof David saith: A summo cœlo egressio ejus, etc. From the high and | sovereign heaven the Son | of God descended and ascended again unto the sovereign height, the quality of | the divine excellence. And | that he ascended above all the heavens material David said it clearly which said, | Elevata est magnificentia tua | super cœlos, Lord God thy magnificence is lift up and elevate above all the heavens | material. He ascended unto | the heaven where God the Father sitteth, not like unto Elijah which ascended in a | chariot of fire unto a high region, | from whence he was translated into a paradise terrestrial. He went no further, | but Jesu Christ ascended in | the highest heaven that is called cœlum empyreum, which is the proper habitation | of God, of the angels, | and of the saints. And this habitation properly appertaineth to dwellers, for this | heaven, above all other heavens, | hath excellence in divinity, in priority, in situation and circumference. And | therefore it is convenient of Jesu | Christ, which all the heavens of intelligence and reason surmounteth in | divinity, in eternity, in situation | of immobility, and in circumference of puissance. Semblably it is the | habitation of saints of good | congruity. For that heaven is without deformity, unmeasurable, of perfect light, | | | and of capacity without | measure; and rightfully it appertaineth unto angels and unto saints, which were | all one in operation, immovable | in dilection, shining in the faith and in knowledge, of great capacity in | receiving the Holy Ghost, it | appeareth by this Scripture that saith in the Canticles: Lo! this is he that cometh | leaping in the mountains and |overpassing the hills. And who that ascended above all the heavens of intelligence, | that is to say above the angels, | appeareth by David, that saith: He ascended above the cherubin, which is as | much as to say as the plenitude | of science, and flew upon the pens of the wind. And who ascended above | unto the heaven substantial, that | is, to the equality of God the Father, it appeareth by the gospel of Mark, | Marci ultimo: Et Dominus quidem, | Jesus, etc. Sith that our Lord had spoken to his disciples, he was set in | heaven on the right side of | God. Whereof saith S. Bernard: To my Lord Jesus Christ it is said singularly, | and given of my Lord God | the Father, that he sit on the right side of his glory in glory, in essence | consubstantial by generation, | semblable of majesty and nothing-unlike, and of eternity semblable. | Now may we say that Jesus | in his ascension was right high of four manners of height, that is to wit of place, | of remuneration, of reward, | of knowledge, and of virtuality or strength. Of the first said the apostle ad | Ephesios: He that descended | hither down, that is he that ascended above all the heavens. Of the second, ad | Ephesios secundo: He was made | obedient unto death. When S. Austin saith: The humility of clearness is the | | | merit, and the clearness | of meekness is the meed or reward. Meekness is the merit of clearness, and | clearness is the reward of meekness. | Of the third saith David: Adscendit super cherubim, He ascended above | cherubim, that is above the | plenitude of science and of knowledge. Of the fourth it appeareth, for as it is | written: He ascended above | Seraphim, which is interpreted the strength of God. And we ought to know | that of his ascension we have | nine fruits profitable. The first is the habitation of the love of God, whereof is | said in the gospel, Johannis xvi.: | Nisi enim abiero, etc. But if I shall go the Holy Ghost shall not come to you; | where saith S. Austin: If ye | seek me by fleshly love ye may not comprehend the Holy Ghost which is spiritual | love. The second is the more greater | knowledge of God, whereof saith S. John in the gospel: If ye love me well | ye shall have great joy, for | I go to my Father, for he is greater than I am. Where saith S. Austin: I shall | withdraw this form of humanity | in which my Father is more greater than I, as to that ye may see God. The third | point is the merit of the faith, | of whom saith S. Leo the Pope in a sermon of the Ascension: Then began the | faith more certain to approach, | which teacheth us the Son to be equal to the Father and semblable, and as to | the body substantial of Jesu | Christ, of which he is less than the Father, and whereof he had no need. And this | vigour is of great courage, | and firm without doubt, for to believe that which is not seen at eye, and to affix the | desires that may not be beholden. | And S. Austin saith: He ascended as a giant to run in his way, and tarried | | | not, but he ran crying by voice, | by words, by deeds, by death, by life, by descending and by ascending; in | crying that we should return | to him by good heart that we may find him. The fourth is our surety, therefor | ascended Jesu Christ into | heaven for to be our advocate to God the Father. And we ought to hold us well | | | assured when we have such | advocate to God the Father, and this witnesseth us S. John, that saith in his canon: | We have advocate to the Father, |Jesus Christ which is merciful to us for our sins. And of this surety saith S | Bernard: O man, saith | he, we have a sure going or a coming to God the Father, where the Mother is before | the Son, to whom she showeth | her breast and her paps, and the Son showeth to the Father his side and his | wounds. Then we may not | be put away where we have so many signs of love and of charity. The fifth is our | dignity. A great dignity have we | gotten when our nature is lift up unto the right side of the Father, whereof the | angels of heaven, considering | that, defended for to be worshipped of man, Apocalypsis xix. S. John would | have worshipped the angel | that spake to him, and the angel defended him in saying: Beware thee that thou do | not so, for I am thy brother | and thy servant. Whereas the gloss saith, that in the old law he defended not to be | worshipped of man, but after the | Ascension, when he saw man lift up above him. And of this S. Leo saith in a | sermon of the Ascension: This | day the nature of our humanity hath been borne above the height of all | puissances unto where as God | the Father sitteth, as that it should seem more marvellous when it is seen that it is | much far from men, so much | more show they the reverence and the honour that they have. And hereof the | faith mistrusteth not, ne hope | slacketh not, ne charity aminisheth not. The sixth is the stedfastness and | firmness of our faith, whereof | saith S. Paul ad Hebræos sexto: To Jesu Christ we run for refuge, for to keep the | | | hope that hath been delivered | to us as an anchor which is firm to the soul and sure, which leadeth to within | heaven, where Jesu Christ | before us entered. And S. Leo saith thus: The ascension of Jesu Christ is our | mounting and lifting up, | and where the joy of our head is, there abideth the hope of our body. The seventh is | the showing of the way of heaven, | whereof saith Micah the prophet: He ascended to show us the way. And S. | Austin saith: Thy Saviour hath | made the way to thee, arise thou and go thither, for thou hast that thou | intendest, be not now slothful. | The eighth is the opening of the gate of heaven; for like as Adam opened | the gate of hell, in likewise Jesu | Christ opened the gate of heaven, as the Church singeth; Lord God Jesu | Christ, thou art he that hast | overcome the prick of death, that is the devil, and hast opened the realm of | heaven to them that believe in thee. | The ninth is the preparation of the new place. Whereof Jesus saith in the | Gospel of John: I go for | to make ready your place in heaven. And S.Austin saith: Lord, array that thou hast | made ready. Thou arrayest |us Lord to thee, and thou arrayest thee to us, when thou makest ready the place, | to the end that to thee in us, | and in thee to us, may be the preparation of the place and the mansion of the | everlasting health. Amen. | Here beginneth of the Blessed Holy Feast of Pentecost or of the Holy Ghost. | The Holy Ghost, as witnesseth | S. Luke in the story of the Acts of the Apostles, on this day was sent to the | apostles in the form and likeness | of tongues of fire. And of this sending and coming eight things be to be | | | considered. First, from whom | he was sent. Secondly, in how many manners he was sent. Thirdly, in what time | he was sent. Fourthly, how | oft he was sent to the apostles. Fifthly, in what wise he was sent. Sixthly, into | whom he was sent. Seventhly, | wherefore he was sent. As to the first, it is to weet that he was sent from the | Father, and from the Son he | was sent, and he also himself, the Holy Ghost, gave and sent himself. Of the | first saith S. John, Johannis xiv.: | The Holy Ghost which is said paraclitus, whom God the Father shall send in | my name, this is he that shall | teach us all. Of the second saith S. John: If I go, saith Jesus, I shall send | him to you. Now it is to wit | that the sending is compared in three manners to the sender. First, as he | that giveth being in his | substance, and in this manner the sun giveth his rays or beams. Secondly, as in giving | virtue or strength, and so is | the dart given by the virtue and strength of him that casteth it. Thirdly, to him that | giveth his jurisdiction to another, | and thus the messenger is sent from him of whom he hath the | commandment. And after these | three manners the Holy Ghost may be said to be sent, for it is said: sent of the | Father and of the Son as | having virtue and authority in his operation, notwithstanding himself giveth and | sendeth him. The which | thing seemed to be veritable after this that the gospel of John saith, Johannis decimo | sexto, Cum autem venerit | ille Spiritus veritatis, etc.: When the spirit of truth shall come, which proceedeth | from the Father, he shall bear | witness of me that he cometh from me. Now saith S. Leo in a sermon of the | | | Pentecost: The incommutable deity | of the Blessed Trinity is without any changing, one in substance, not | divided in operation, all one | in will, like in omnipotence, equal in glory, and in his mercy. He hath | taken to himself the work | of our redemption, that the Father be to us merciful, the Son to us profitable, and | God the Holy Ghost inflame us. | And because that the Holy Ghost is God, therefore he giveth himself. And | that this is true, S. Ambrose | in the book of the Holy Ghost sayeth thus: The glory of the Divinity is | approved by four reasons, or | for that he is without sin, or for that he leaveth the sins, or for that he is creator | and not creature, or for that | he worshipped none but he is worshipped. And in that is showed to us that the | Blessed Trinity was all given | to us, for the Father hath offered all that he had. As saith S. Austin: He hath sent | to us his Son in price of | our redemption, and the Holy Ghost in sign of our adoption. Semblably the Son of | God hath given himself unto | us. For thus saith S. Bernard: He is our pastor, he is our pasture, and he is | our redemption, for he gave | his soul in price of our redemption, his blood in to drink, his flesh in to meat, | and his divinity in to final reward. | Semblably the Holy Ghost gave himself all to us; like as the apostle saith: | By the Holy Ghost is given | the word of sapience to one, to another of science; and thus of all graces particular is | given by the same Holy Ghost. | And hereof saith S. Leo the Pope: The Holy Ghost is the inspirer of the faith, | giver of Science, teacher of | chastity, and cause of all health. As to the second, he is sent in four manners, that | is to wit, that the Holy Ghost | is sent in two manners, visibly and invisibly. As touching into the hearts pure | and chaste he descended | visibly, when by some sign visible he is showed. Of the sending invisible saith S. | John, Johannis iii.: Spiritus | ubi vult spirat. The Holy Ghost where he will he inspireth the hearts, but thou | knowest not whence he cometh | nor whither he will go. And it is no marvel, for as S. Bernard saith of this word | invisible: He is not entered | by the eyes, for he is not coloured, ne by the ears, for he soundeth not, ne by the | nostrils, for he is not | meddled with the air, ne he entereth not by the conduit of the mouth, for he may | not be swallowed, ne by | the feeling or attouching, for he is not maniable, ne may not be handled. Thou | demandest then if he hath | sought any place natural or human by which thou mightest know that he be come | into thee. Know thou, saith | S. Bernard, that of the moving of the heart I have understood by his presence; | and by the fleeing of vices | I have felt the virtue of his puissance; and by the discussion and reproving of my | sins hidden, I am amarvelled | of the deepness of sapience and of the amendment of my manners how | little and small that they be. | I have experience of the bounty of his mansuetude and of the reformation and | renovation of the spirit of | my heart. I have pierced the thickness and the nobleness of his beauty, and of the | regard and consideration | of all these things, I am abashed of the multitude of his greatness. The sending | visible, when it is in any | sign visible, it showeth. And it is to wit that in five signs visible the Holy Ghost is sent | and showed. First, in sign | of a dove upon Jesu Christ when he was baptized, Luke iii.: The Holy Ghost | descended in bodily likeness | of a dove upon him. Secondly, in likeness of a fair cloud and clear upon | Jesu Christ at his transfiguration, | Matthew xvii.: Lo! he yet speaking a bright cloud shadowed them. This was | upon the Mount Tabor | where Jesu Christ spake with S. Peter, James, and John. And thus as he spake there | descended a clear cloud that | covered them all, whereas the gloss saith thus: When Jesu Christ was baptized, | and also when he was clarified, | the mystery of the Trinity was showed. The Holy Ghost was showed at the | baptism in likeness of a dove, | and in the hill in the likeness of a clear mountain and cloud. Thirdly, he was | showed in likeness of a blowing | or a blast, as saith S. John, Johannis vicesimo: He breathed and blew on | | | them and said: Take ye the Holy | Ghost in you; of whom ye forgive the sins, they shall be forgiven, and of whom | ye retain the sins, they shall | be retained. Fourthly, in likeness of fire. Fifthly, in likeness of tongues. And in | these two manners he appeared | to us to give us to understand that the properties of the tongue and of fire | he putteth in the hearts | when he descendeth. The dove hath wailing for her song, she hath no gall, she maketh | her house in an hole, or | in a wall of stone. And thus the Holy Ghost, them that he replenisheth, he maketh them | to wail for their sins. | Whereof saith Isaiah the prophet, Isaiah Iix.: We all shall roar like bears, and wail like | doves, in thinking humbly | and bitterly how we have erred against the Scripture. | And this comforteth us | the apostle S. Paul, ad Romanos viii.: The Holy Ghost ceaseth not to pray for us in | moving us to wailings without | number, for our sins which be without number. Secondly, the doves be | without gall, and the | Holy Ghost maketh them such where he descendeth, for that is his nature. Whereof | saith the wise man, Sapientiæ | xii.: O quam bonus et suavis, etc.: O Lord God, how much good and sweet is | this spirit in us. Item, in | the same place he is called sweet, benign, and human, of that he maketh us benign | and human, that is to wit, | sweet in word, benign in heart, and human in work. Thirdly, the doves dwell | within the holes of walls | of stone, that is to say, in the wounds of Jesu Christ he maketh them dwell. That he | fulfilleth whereof it is said | in the Cantica Canticorum ii.: Arise thou my spouse, my love and my dove, my | | | spouse and love, that is | a devout soul, and come my dove for to nourish small pigeons in the holes of the | wall, that is in the wounds | of our Lord. Whereof S. Jerome saith: Spiritus oris nostri, etc.-thus as he would | say, the Spirit that is of |our mouth, that is Jesu Christ, for he is our mouth. And our flesh maketh us say to | Christ, In thine umber, that | is, in thy passion, in which Jesu Christ was obscure, dark and despised, we shall | live by continual memory. | Secondly, he was showed in likeness of a cloud. The cloud is lift up from the earth | by virtue of the sun, and nourisheth | and engendereth rain, and refresheth and cooleth the air and the earth. | Thus the Holy Ghost, | them that he replenisheth he lifteth from the earth for to despise the earthly things, | as saith the prophet Ezechiel: | The Holy Ghost hath lift me into the air between heaven and earth, and hath | brought me into Jerusalem, | in the vision of God. Secondly, he refresheth the earth, that is the hearts, | against the dryness of burning | of vices. And of this was said to the Virgin Mary Spiritus sanctus superveniet in | te, etc.: The Holy Ghost | shall come in thee, and the virtue of him that is highest shall shadow thee, and | from all ardour of vices shall | cool thee. And the Holy Ghost is called water because that water hath the virtue | and nature to refresh and cool. | Whereof saith S. John the Evangelist: From the Holy Ghost the floods of | living water shall run. And | that same saith he of the Holy Ghost, which the apostles received, and of them | that received him, for the | rivers ran through all the world upon them that believed in God. Thirdly, he | engendereth rain, the which |descendeth by drops. And this is that David saith: The Holy Ghost shall blow and | make waters to flow, that | is to say by the tears coming from the heart dropping from the eyes. Fourthly, he is | | | showed in likeness of breath, | which is a spirit of the heart which is cast out by the mouth, which is light, | hot, sweet, and necessary | to breathe with. Thus the Holy Ghost is light to be shed into a man, he is most | swift of anything that is movable, | as the gloss saith upon this word: Factus est repente de cœlo sonus, etc. | At the coming of the Holy Ghost | he made moving as of thunder, and of wind, vehement and sudden, and | fulfilled all the house where | the apostles sat, which abode him in great devotion. For the grace of the Holy | Ghost wrought not in | his operation of space, ne of time, but he had sudden motion. Secondly, he is hot for to | enflame the hearts. Whereof | Jesu Christ saith: I am come to cast fire in the earth, but this is that burneth | and inflameth the hearts. | And is compared to wind which is hot, whereof is said in the Canticles: Veni | auster et perfla hortum meum. | Come wind of the south, and blow in my garden, that is my soul. Thirdly, he is | sweet for to make sweet the hearts, | and therefore he is named by the name of unction; the sweet unction of | him teacheth us which appertaineth | to our health. And it is named by name of dew whereof singeth holy | Church: Et sui roris aspersione | fecundet, where she prayeth that the aspersion and springing of the dew | make our hearts to grow in | virtue, and also by space of time still and calm. After the stroke of the fire, | descended a sweet sound | of air soft and small, and there was our Lord. Fourthly, it is necessary to breathe | in such manner that if it might | not issue out of the mouth that he might not breathe, anon the man should | | | die. And thus should we | understand of the Holy Ghost, after this that David saith: Auferes spiritum eorum et | deficient et in pulverem, etc. | Lord God as soon as thou shalt take away their spirit they shall fail. And therefore | saith he: Emitte spiritum tuum, | etc. Lord God send thy spirit into them and they shall be created by spiritual | life and be renewed, for the | Holy Ghost is he that giveth life. Fourthly, he was showed in the likeness of fire. | Fifthly, in likeness of tongues. | And the cause for which he appeared in these two manners I shall hereafter say. | As to the third principal, | in which time he was sent, he was on the fiftieth day sent, after Easter, for to give to | us knowledge that the Holy Ghost | came, and it is the perfection of the law, the remuneration perdurable, and | the remission of sins. It appeareth | of the perfection of the law, for from the day that the Lamb was sacrificed | in that old law, the law was | delivered the fiftieth day after that, as the Church saith, in fire. And also in the | New Testament, fifty days | after Easter, descended the Holy Ghost on the mount of Sion in likeness of fire. | Like as the law was given | in the highest of the mount of Sinai, so the Holy Ghost in the solier where the supper | of Jesu Christ and of his | apostles was made. In this appeareth that the Holy Ghost is the perfection of all | the law, for in that is the | plenitude of dilection. Secondly, the perdurable remuneration is in the Holy | Ghost, whereof the gloss | saith thus, that the fourty days in which our Lord conversed with his disciples signify | the holy church, also the | fiftieth day on which the Holy Ghost was given, expresseth the penny of the last | | | retribution and reward perdurable. | Thirdly, of the Holy Ghost is the remission of sins, as saith the gloss. | Therefore it was given in the | fiftieth day, because in the fiftieth year was the Jubilee, and all things pardoned, | and by the Holy Ghost the | sins be pardoned. And it followeth in the gloss: In the jubilee spiritual the | prisoners be delivered, the debts | be quitted, the exiled be repealed and called home, the heritages be rendered, | and the bond men be rendered | from their servitude and made free. and the guilty of death be made quit and | delivered. Whereof saith S. Paul: | The law of the spirit of life in Jesu Christ hath delivered me from the law of | sin and of death. After, the | debts of sin be left, for charity covereth and quencheth great multitude of sins. | The exiled men be called | home, and the prophet saith: Spiritus tuus bonus, etc. Lord thy good spirit hath | brought me into the right land | of my country, that is, into heaven. The heritage lost is rendered, whereof saith | S. Paul: The Holy Ghost | hath given witness to our Spirit that we be the sons of God. And if we be sons we | be heirs, which were servants | to sin, we be made free to God, for where the Holy Ghost is, there is franchise and | liberty. As touching the fourth, | how oft he was sent to the apostles, after that the gloss saith: He was given to | them by three times, that is | to wit before the passion of Jesu Christ, after the resurrection, and after the | Ascension. First to do miracles. | Secondly to release the sins, and thirdly to confirm the hearts. First, when he | sent them to preach, and to cast | fiends out of bodies, and to heal the sick malades, he gave to them the | | | puissance. And these marvels | did they by the Holy Ghost, nevertheless it is not consequent that whosoever | have the Holy Ghost do miracles. | For S. Gregory saith: The miracles maketh not a man holy, but show him | holy, nor also every man | that doth miracles hath not the Holy Ghost. For evil people avaunt them to have done | miracles, saying: Lord, Lord, | say they, have not we well prophesied in thy name? Thou hast given to us the spirit | of prophecy. God doth | miracles by his angels, by matter amiable that they have, and the fiends by virtues natural, which be | in things created naturally, | and the enchanter, by help of fiends. The good christian man by justice public, the | evil christian man by signs | of justice. Secondly, they had the Holy Ghost when he breathed on them saying: | Take ye the Holy Ghost in | to you, to whom ye loose their sins they shall be loosed, and of whom ye retain, | they shall be retained. Nevertheless | none save God may forgive sins as to the sin that is in the soul, and which | is the obligation to pain | perdurable, or as to the offence of God, the which is only forgiven by the infusion of | the grace of God, and by | the force and virtue of contrition. Nevertheless we say that the priest assoilleth | of sins, as for that he is | insinued, or showeth that the sinner is assoilled of God. As to that, that the pain that | should be perpetual, he changeth | into temporal of purgatory, and also for that the pain temporal is due, he | releaseth part. Thirdly, the | Holy Ghost was given to them on this day, when he confirmed so their hearts that | they dreaded no torment | by the virtue of the Holy Ghost, which all overcometh. Whereof saith S. Austin: | | | Such is the grace of the Holy | Ghost that if he find heaviness in the heart he breaketh it; if he find desire of | evil, he destroyeth it; if he | find vain dread, he casteth it out. And S. Leo the Pope saith: The Holy Ghost was | hoped of the apostles, not | for then first he had inhabited in them, but because that the hearts to him | | | sacred and dedicated, he | more should visit them, and more abundantly by grace should abide in increasing | his gifts not then begun, | of which he was not newly showing his operation, for his largess passeth all | abundance. As to the fifth, | that is to wit, how he was sent. It is to be known that he was sent with great sound | in tongues of fire, the which | tongues appeared sitting. And the sound was sudden from heaven, vehement and | shining. It was sudden for | he had no need of space temporal. It was from heaven, for he made them | celestial that he replenished. | Vehement for he gave dread of love, or for that he took away the sorrow | perdurable, which is malediction; | or for that that he bare the heart out of carnal love. Also he was | replenishing, for he fulfilled | all the apostles. As saith S. Luke: Repleti sunt omnes Spiritu Sancto. And it is to | weet that there be three signs | of replenishing that were in the apostles. The first is that the place where he is | giveth no sound, like a tun | of wine that is full. To this purpose speaketh Job: Shall the ox cry and roar when | the racke is full? The ox | shall not low nor cry when the crib shall be full, like as he would say when the heart is | full of grace, him ought not | grudge by impatience. This sign had the apostles, for in the tribulation that they | had, they resounded not, | ne grudged by impatience, but joyously went to the presence of the tyrants, to prison, | and to torments. The second | sign is that he may receive no more, else he were not full. In this manner he that is | all filled demandeth no more. | In like wise the saints that have plenitude of grace, may receive none other | | | liquor of earthly delectation; | and because they have tasted the sweetness of heaven, they have none appetite | to the earthly delectations. | Whereof saith S. Austin: Whoso drinketh one drop of delights of paradise, the | which one drop is greater than | all the sea ocean. Which ought to be understood that all the thirst of this world | is in him extinct. And this | sign had the apostles which would have none of the goods of this world in proper, | but put it all in common. | The third sign is for to run over out, as it appeareth by a river which ariseth and | runneth over his banks. | As Solomon saith: Which filleth as Phison wisdom. This flood, or river Phison, of | his nature ariseth and springeth | over, and watereth and arroseth the land about him. In like wise the apostles | began to spread abroad. | For after they had received the Holy Ghost they began to speak divers languages, | where the gloss saith, that | that was the sign of plenitude, for the vessel full sheddeth over, as it | appeareth of S. Peter, for anon | as he began to preach he converted three thousand. Secondly, he was sent in | tongues of fire. And here | be three things to be considered. First, for whom he was sent conjointly in | the tongues of fire. Secondly, | wherefore he was sent in tongues of fire more than in another element. Thirdly, | wherefore he was sent in | tongues more than in another member. As to the first, for three reasons he was sent | and appeared in tongues | of fire, to the end that their words should inflame the hearts. Secondly, that they | should preach the fiery law | of God. Thirdly, that they should know that the Holy Ghost, which is fire, spake | | | in them, and t by his | incomprehensibility. For the third, he is said Holy Ghost having all virtue, for he is | invincible, for he hath all | strength, seeing all things from far. The third reason is taken as to his manifold | effect. And this reason assigneth | Rabanus, saying that the fire hath four virtues or natures. It burneth, it | purgeth, It chauffeth, it | lighteth. In likewise the Holy Ghost burneth the sins, he purgeth the hearts, he casteth | away all coldness and dread | of the hearts, and he illumineth them that be ignorant. Of the first saith | Zachary the prophet: He | broileth and burneth the hearts as the fire burneth the silver. Also David saith: Lord I | pray thee, burn my reins | and my heart, and dry them from all sin. He purgeth also the hearts after that, as | saith Isaiah: When our Lord | hath washed away the filthes of the daughters of Sion, and hath purged the | blood of Jerusalem from | the middle of him in the spirit of judgment and in the spirit of burning, then shall they | be in safety and surety, | and kept against all tempest. And the prophet speaketh of the purgation that shall be | made at the last, when all shall | be purged pure and clean that shall go in to heaven. He casteth out also all | coldness and pusillanimity of | the hearts, whereof the apostle saith: Be ye fervent in spirit, that is of heart, the | which thing the Holy Ghost | maketh when He espriseth him of his love. And hereof saith S. Gregory: The Holy | Ghost appeared in fire for | all the hearts which He replenished, and voided the coldness of fire, and | inflamed them with desire | of the glory perdurable. He illumined also the ignorant, whereof saith the wise | | | man; Lord God who shall | know thy science, if thou give not thy sapience and send to us thine Holy Spirit | from above, that is he that | all enseigneth and teacheth? The fourth reason is taken after the nature of his love. | Love is signified by the fire | for three causes. The first cause is for the fire is always moving, so is it of the | Holy Ghost; for them that | he replenisheth he maketh them to be in continual moving of good operation. | Whereof saith S. Gregory: | The love of God is never idle, as long as it is in the heart of a devout person it | fructifieth. And it fructifieth | not, it is a sign that it is not there. The second is, for the fire among all the other | elements hath but little matter, | but strong virtue in operation it hath in his quality. Thus the Holy Ghost, | whom he replenisheth, maketh | them to have but little love to earthly things, and great to spiritual things, in so | much they love not worldly | things more worldlily, but spiritually. S. Bernard putteth four manners of love; | that is to wit, to love the | world fleshly, the spirit fleshly, the flesh spiritually, and the spirit spiritually. | The third cause is, for that | the fire abasheth and meeketh the things high. He hath tended on high things | despercled, to unite them, | and them despercled to bring together. And by these three things be understood three | virtues of love. For as saith S. | Denis in the book of the names divine: The fire hath three virtues, for he | inclineth the high things down, | he lifteth the things low in height, he ordaineth the things equal to their | ordinance. And these three | things maketh the Holy Ghost in them that he replenisheth. For he inclineth | them by humility, he lifteth | them up by desire of high things, and ordaineth them together by unity of | manners. Thirdly, he appeared | in likeness of a tongue more than in another member, and for three reasons. | The tongue is the member | that is inflamed of the fire of hell, and is of great difficulty to govern, and profitable | when it is well governed. And | because that the tongue was inflamed of the fire of hell, she had need that the | Holy Ghost should come | to inflame it. As saith S. James: It is the fire of the Holy Ghost, and because it is | evil and lightly governed, | she hath the more need. For after that that saith S. James in his chronicle: All nature | of beasts, of birds, and | of serpents be mastered and ruled by man, but the tongue may not be mastered. And | because it is a member profitable | when it is well governed, therefore he had need of the Holy Ghost that | should govern it. He appeared | also in a tongue, which is much necessary. To preachers he is necessary, for he | maketh them to speak fervently | without dread, and therefore he was in that likeness. As saith S. Bernard: | The Holy Ghost descended | upon the disciples in tongues of fire to the end that they should preach and | speak the law of the tongues | of fire. The Holy Ghost also maketh them to speak and preach hardily and | constantly, as S. Luke saith | in the Acts of the Apostles: They were all replenished with the Holy Ghost and | began to speak with hardiness | the word of God. He maketh them also to speak in many manners for the | great and diverse multitude | of hearers, and therefore it is said they began to speak with divers tongues in such | wise as the Holy Ghost | administered to them. He made them also to preach profitably to the edification of the | people, whereof saith Isaiah: | The Holy Ghost is descended upon me, and hath anointed me with his | grace, whereof he hath | made my words pleasant and profitable to the health of creatures. Thirdly, the | tongues appeared sitting, in | signifying that he was necessary to presidents and judges, for he giveth | authority for to pardon and | to forgive sins, as saith S. John: Take ye the Holy Ghost, by whom ye shall take | away the sins of them-that | will repent them. He giveth also wisdom for to deem and judge, whereof saith | Isaiah: shall put, saith God, | my spirit upon them that shall judge and deem truly. He giveth also debonairty | and sweetness for to support | and mollify the judgment, as it is said, Numeri xi.: I shall give to my people of my | | | spirit that is in thee, for | to support the burden of my people. The spirit of Moses was the spirit of benignity | and of sweetness that was | in him for to judge the people. Moses was most meek and most debonair, and | therefore God delivered to | him his people for to govern. The Holy Ghost giveth also adornment of holiness for | to inform, as saith the Scripture: | The Holy Ghost hath adorned the heavens, that be the hearts wherein he | descendeth. And as to the sixth, | into whom he was sent, into the apostles that were vessels clean and pure, and | disposed to receive the Holy |Ghost, And that for seven causes that were in them. First, they were quiet and | peaceable in heart, and this | signifieth that is sung: Dum complerentur dies pentecostes, etc. The day of the | pentecost they were all together | in one place still assembled. The day of the pentecost is the day of rest, | after that Isaiah saith: Upon | whom shall my spirit descend, but upon an humble heart and being still. | Secondly, he was heard by | dilection. And this is that the Scripture saith: Erant omnes pariter, they were all | together, for they were all of | one heart and of one will. And thus the spirit of man giveth not life to the | members but that they be together; | in likewise the Holy Ghost giveth not spiritual life but to the members | united spiritually. And as | the fire quencheth and goeth out when the brands be taken away, so the Holy Ghost | goeth away when the members | by discord be divided. And therefore it is sung of the apostles that the Holy | Ghost found them all of one | accord by love and by charity, and illumined them with clearness shining in | | | them of the divine Deity. | Thirdly, they were in a secret place; for they were in the place where Jesu Christ | made with them his maundy | or supper, whereof is said, Hosea ii.: I shall lead man's soul into a solitary place | and shall speak to it in secret. | Fourthly, they were in orison and prayer continual, whereof is sung: Orantibus | apostolis deum venisse, etc, | when they were in prayer then came the Holy Ghost upon them; which prayer is | necessary to receive the Holy | Ghost. Like as the wise man saith: I have prayed God and the Holy Ghost is | come in me. Whereof saith | Jesu Christ, John xiv.: I shall pray God my Father, and I shall send to you in my | stead the Holy Ghost that shall | comfort you. Fifthly, they were garnished with humility and meekness, and | that is, that they were sitting | when the Holy Ghost came. And hereof saith David: Lord God, thou art he | that sendest the fountains | into the valleys, that is the Holy Ghost which is the fountain of grace, which he | sendeth into the humble hearts. | Sixthly, they were in peace together. In that is to be understood that they | were in Jerusalem, which is | as much to say as the vision of peace. And that peace is necessary to receive the | Holy Ghost, our Lord showed | when he came to them after his resurrection saying: Pax vobis, Peace be with | you, and after said: Take ye | the Holy Ghost. Seventhly, they were lift up in contemplation. And this is to | understand that they received | the Holy Ghost in an high place, wherof saith the gloss: Who that now desireth | the Holy Ghost in his heart, | let him put the house of his flesh under his feet by lifting up his heart by | contemplation. And as to | the seventh, wherefore he was sent; it is to be noted, for seven causes he was sent, that | be understood in this authority: | Paracletus autem spiritus sanctus: quem mittet pater in nomine meo ille | | | vos docebit omnia. The | first cause is for to comfort the sorrowful when is said, Paracletus, which is as much as | to say as comforter, as | God saith by Isaiah: The spirit of God upon me, and it followeth to the end that I should | comfort the weepers of Sion, | that be the daughters that saw God. Whereof saith S. Gregory: The Holy Ghost is | said comforter to them that | he findeth wailing for their sins that they have committed, he maketh ready hope of | pardon in lifting their hearts | from affliction of sorrow. The second is for to quicken the dead when he saith | Spiritus, for the Spirit is | he that quickeneth as it is said in Ezechiel: Ye bones that be dry and without life, I | shall send in you my Spirit | and ye shall live. The third cause is for to sanctify and make clean the sinners in | this that he said: Sanctus, | as it is said, Spirit because he giveth life. Also he saith Holy, because he sanctifieth | and maketh clean, and it | is said pure and clean. Therefore saith David: The grace of the Holy Ghost | which is a flood pure and | cleansing, he gladdeth the city of God, that is holy church, and by this flood our | Lord hath sanctified his | tabernacle. The fourth cause is, he is sent for to confirm love among them that be in | discord and hate, which is |noted in this word Pater. He is said Father, because that naturally he loveth us, as | saith S. John in the gospel, | Johannis xiii.: Jesu Christ saith: My Father loveth you as his sons, and if ye be his | sons, then be ye brethren each | to other, and between brethren always ought to persevere love and friendship. | The fifth cause is for to | save the just and true men. In this that he saith: In nomine meo, that is Jesus, that is | | | to say, Saviour, in whose name | the Father sent the Holy Ghost to show that he came to save the people. The | sixth cause is for to inform | the ignorant in this that he saith: Ille vos docebit omnia. The Holy Ghost, when he | shall come, he shall | teach you all things. As to the seventh, that he is given or sent first in the beginning of | the church by prayer, | as thus when he came the apostles prayed God and were in prayer, whereof is sung: | Orantibus apostolis Deum venisse, | the apostles praying, the Holy Ghost came. And Luke iii., Jesu praying the | Holy Ghost descended. Secondly, | he came by hearing attentively and devoutly the word of God. Acts x.: As S. | Peter was preaching, the Holy | Ghost descended upon them. Thirdly, he came by holy and busy operation, that | is by this that is said: | Imponebant manus super eos et accipiebant spiritum sanctum. The apostles put their | hands on them that believed | and anon they received the Holy Ghost. And this imposition of the hands signifieth | the absolution of the priest; | which absolution give us the Holy Ghost. Amen. Here followeth the Feast of the Holy Sacrament. | The great largesse and benefits | that God hath distributed to Christian people, give to the said people | great dignity, for there is | no people, ne never was so great a nation that their gods had approached so nigh | them as our Lord God is | unto us. The blessed Son of God would make us partners unto his divinity and | godhead, and therefore took | our nature to the end that making himself man, he would make men as gods. And | all that he took of us, he | gave all again to us for our salvation. He gave his proper body an offering unto God | | | the Father on the altar | of the cross, for our reconciliation, and shed his blood in price and washing | our sins, to the end | that we might be redeemed from the miserable servitude wherein we were, and that we | should be also clean and | cleansed of our sins. And also to the end that this excellent benefice abide to us in | perpetual memory, he hath | unto devout hearts and faithful given his own body in meat, and his precious | blood in drink, in likeness | of bread and wine. O precious feast and convive and verily full of great | wonder, the feast healthful | and replenished of all sweetness. What thing may be more precious than the | noble convive or feast in | which not only the flesh of calves ne of oxen like as was given in the old law for to | taste, but the proper body | of Jesu which is very God, is presented for to receive and assavour devoutly. What | thing might be more full | of great admiration than is this Holy Sacrament in which the bread and wine be | commixed substantially into | the proper body of Jesu. And therefore Jesu Christ there is contained under the | species and likeness of bread | and wine. He is eaten and received of the good and true christian men but for that | he is not departed in pieces |ne asundered in his members, but abideth all whole and entire in every each | of his parts. For if this | holy sacrament were divided or departed in a thousand parts, in every part should | remain the proper body | of our Lord whole and entire. None other sacrament is not of so much merit, nor so | full of health as this sacrament | is. For by this be purged the sins, the virtues be increased, and the thoughts be | | | engrassed and fulfilled with | the abundance of all good virtues. He is in holy church offered for the living and | them that be dead, to the | end that he may profit to all that which is for their salvation, of all them that be | ordained and instituted to | consecrate it. The sweetness of this holy sacrament may none express. By the which | sweetness is spiritually tasted | and remembered the excellent charity that God showed in his glorious | passion, and to the end | that it might be the more fervently impressed in the hearts of devout and faithful | people, of the great largesse | of his charity when he should depart out of this world and go to God his | Father and would eat | his paschal lamb with his disciples, then he instituted this holy sacrament like a | memory perdurable of his | passion, as the accomplishment of ancient figures, and of the miracles | that were done by him, and | also to the end that they that were sorrowful and heavy for his absence, should | thereby have some solace | singular. This is a thing then right convenient and convenable unto the devotion of | devout hearts; to remember | solemnly the institution of so healthful and marvellous a sacrament, to the end that | the ineffable manner of | the ordinance and thought divine visibly be honoured and worshipped; and that | the might and puissance | of God be loved and thanked, which in this sacrament worketh so marvellously; and | also, of so healthful and | of so sweet and gracious benefice be given and rendered to God due thankings | and graces. And how well | that on the day of the cene or supper in which this noble sacrament was instituted is | | | special memory made of | this sacrament, how be it the surplus of the service of the same day appertaineth to | the passion of our Lord, | in the which passion our mother, holy church, is occupied all that day devoutly. | And because this institution | of so noble sacrament may be hallowed more solemnly, the Pope Urban iv., by | | | great affection that he had | to this holy sacrament, moved of great devotion, he ordained the feast and | remembrance of this holy | sacrament the first Thursday after the octaves of Pentecost, for to be hallowed of all | good christian people, | to the end that we who use throughout all the year this holy sacrament to our | salvation, may do our | devoir to this holy institution specially in the time when the Holy Ghost enseigned | and teached the hearts | of the disciples to know the mystery of this holy sacrament. For in that time then, | the true faithful disciples | began to frequent it, it is read in the Acts of the Apostles that they were perseverant in | the doctrine of the apostles | and in communication of the breaking of the bread in devout orisons after the | sending of the Holy Ghost. | And to the end that the holy institution of this amorous sacrament should be the | more honorably hallowed on | the said day, and by the utas or octaves following, in stead of distribution | material, that been distributed | in cathedral churches, the foresaid Pope Urban hath given of his power and | largess apostolic, wages spiritual | and pardons special unto all them that shall be personally in clean life at the | hours diurnal and nocturnal | of this holy solemnity, to the end that every good catholic person should have the | more desire to come to | one so great a solemnity overall where it shall be hallowed. That is to wit at matins, an | hundred days of pardon, | at the mass as much, at the first evensong as much, and at the second evensong on | the day also an hundred | days; at the hours of prime, of tierce, of sixt, of none, and of compline, at every each | | | of these hours forty days. | On the other days during the octaves for every day to them that shall be at matins and | at mass, at tierce, at sixt, | none, evensong and compline, an hundred days of pardon. And all these pardons of the | treasure of the church by | the misericord divine, he hath given them and instituted to endure perpetually. This | sacrament figured our Lord | when he sent manna from heaven unto the old fathers in desert, where they were | fed with meat celestial, | and it is said that the men had eaten bread of angels, but alway, all they that had eaten | thereof, they died in desert, | but this meat that ye now receive is the living bread which descended from | heaven; that administered the | substance of the life eternal; and therefore whosoever receive this bread | here, worthily he shall never | die eternally, for this is the proper body of Jesu Christ. Now consider here then which is most | excellent and most profitable, | the bread of the angels or the proper body of Jesu Christ, which is life perdurable. The | manna aforesaid came from | heaven, this precious flesh is above the heaven; this manna is celestial; this flesh | here is God the creator of | heavens. The manna was kept unto the morn and was corrupt; this bread may feel no | corruption. To them in desert, | abovesaid, sprang water out of a stone, to us is sprung the blood of the amorous | Jesu Christ. The water refresheth | them for an hour, but the precious blood of Jesu Christ washeth us | perpetually. The Jews drank | and alway were athirst, but thou christian man, when thou hast drunk of this | beverage here, thou mayst | never after have thirst. That other was given to them in a shadow and umber but this | | | was given in truth. Now | ye shall understand this that was in the shadow, they drank of the water that issued | out of the stone, this stone | was Jesu Christ and yet they pleased not alway in their works to God, and therefore | died they in desert. All | those things there were done in figure, for to give knowledge of things more great and | more notable. It is much | greater thing of the light than of the shadow; semblably of verity than it is of figure; | and also much greater | of the body of our creator and maker, than it is of the manna that came from heaven. | Thou shalt demand peradventure: | how thou affirmest and assurest me that I receive the body of Jesu Christ | when I see another thing. | We have many examples by the which we may well prove that it which thou | receivest is not that thing | that nature hath formed, but it is well that that the benediction hath consecrated. The | benediction hath greater might | than nature, for by benediction ofttimes nature hath been changed. Moses | that held a rod in his | hand, when he cast it to the earth it became a serpent; anon he took it up and it turned | into the nature of a rod. | Thou seest then how by the grace of the prophet the nature hath been changed | twice, of the serpent and | of the rod. The rivers of Egypt ran some time their course natural, but suddenly by the | veins of the fountains blood | began to issue, and ran so long that the people wist not for to drink. After, at the | prayer of the prophet | the river of blood ceased, and came again to his nature of water as it was before. The | people of the Hebrews | was on a time all environed and enclosed of the Egyptians, between the sea and them | | | Moses lift up his rod, | and then the water departed, and assembled unto the likeness of a wall, and there | appeared to them a way | for to go on foot, and the flood of Jordan, in his proper place, against his nature | returned against the hill. | The old fathers that were in desert, also on a time had great thirst; Moses took his | rod and smote a stone, | out of the which issued a great abundance of water. Is not the grace of benediction | great which hath wrought | above nature, when the stone giveth water which he may not by nature? Marah, which | was a river right bitter, | in such wise that the people that had great thirst might not drink it; Moses put a staff in | the water, and suddenly |by the grace of benediction which there wrought, it lost his bitterness and became | sweet. Semblably in the time | of Elisha the prophet, one of the sons of the prophets let fall the iron of his axe in | the water, the which iron, | after his nature, sank down to the bottom of the water. Then he came to Elisha praying | him for his axe. Elisha | put his bourdon in the water, and anon the iron began to swim about the water, which | is a thing above nature, | for the weight of the iron is heavier than the liquor of the water. By all these things, | and by the blessing of prophets, | we see clearly how grace or benediction hath thus wrought above nature, | and then, sith that benediction | human, diverse times hath thus converted things against nature, what shall we | say of the consecration divine | where the words of God work? For this holy sacrament here that thou receivest | is consecrate of the words | of Jesu Christ. Then if the word of Elijah was of so great effect that it made fire to | descend from heaven, of much | more value and effect is the word of Jesu Christ for to turn the likeness of | elements. Ye have read | of the work of the world; as God said and commanded so was it made; he commanded | and it was made. And | the word that made all things of nought, may not the same change the things that have | been made into other species | and likeness? It is not less to him to create things than to change things. We show | also the mystery of the incarnation | of our maker Jesu Christ. Was not that above nature that Jesu Christ was | born of the Virgin Mary? | If thou demand of the ordinance of nature, thou knowest that the woman hath | a custom to conceive by | the seed of man; but the Virgin Mary engendered and conceived above the ordinance of | nature, and alway remained | a virgin. And this holy sacrament that we now consecrate, is the proper body of | Jesu Christ that was born | of the Virgin. Wherefore then seekest thou of the ordinance of the precious nature of | Jesu Christ, when he is | above all nature? He that was born of the Virgin is the proper flesh of Jesu Christ, the | which was crucified and | buried. And verily this proper flesh is in this sacrament. Our Saviour Jesu Christ | saith: Lo! this is my | proper body. Before the benediction of the celestial words it is another species, | but after the consecration | it is the proper body of our Lord. For as soon as the consecration is preferred and | said, the substance of the bread | is converted into the blessed body of Jesu Christ, and in like wise of the | wine and water in the | chalice; after the words of consecration said, is the very body of our Lord also | whole in flesh and blood. | All the remnant that is said in the mass be praisings and laudings to our Lord, and | also prayers for the church, | for the kings, and for the people. But when this holy sacrament is consecrate the | priest useth not his own | words, but he speaketh the proper words of Jesu Christ and so consecrateth the | sacrament. The which word | of Jesu Christ is it by which all thing was made, the heaven, the earth, and the | sea; then mayst thou see | what a worker is the word of Jesu Christ. And sith that so much might and | power is in the word of Jesu | Christ, that it which never had been began to be, then by much more reason may he make that | that is, to be converted | into other substance. And thus that which was bread before the consecration, is the proper | body of Jesu Christ after | the consecration. And thus hath our blessed Lord left to us his blessed body for to | | | be honoured and worshipped | here in earth. And by reason, methinketh, he might do no less, considering | our unstableness, and how | prone the people have been to worship false gods and idols; and how oft his own | chosen people the Jews departed | from his laws and took to them false gods, notwithstanding the great | miracles and marvellous that | he did and showed for them, than to leave his own proper body here among us | daily, to be remembered | in eschewing of all idolatry for the salvation of our souls, whom we beseech that we | may receive unto our perpetual | salvation. Amen. The Dedication of the Temple of the Church. | The dedication of the | church is solemnly hallowed among the other feasts of the church, and because that | it is double church or | temple, that is to wit, material and spiritual. And therefore it is to be seen shortly of | the dedication of this double | temple. As to the dedication of the temple material. three things be to be | considered. First, wherefore it | is hallowed or dedicate. Secondly, how it is hallowed. Thirdly, by whom it is | hallowed. And because that | two things be in the church that be hallowed, that is the altar and the temple, | therefore it is first to be | seen how the altar is hallowed. The altar is first hallowed for three things. First, to | make sacrifice to God, as | it is said, Genesis viii.: Noah edified first an altar to our Lord, and took of all the | birds and of all the beasts | of the the thought, and the song of the voice to the preaching of the word of God: | but in this, what profiteth | the sweetness of the voice without the sweetness of the heart? She breaketh the | | | voice, but the will keepeth | the concordance of the voice, and of good manners, so that by ensample he | accord him to his neighbour, | and by his good will he accord him to God, and by obedience to his master; and | this is the treble manner | of music, which is reported to the treble difference of the office of the church. For the | office of the church is made | in psalms, in lessons, and in song. The first manner of music is made by touching | of fingers, as in the psaltery | and semblable instruments: the second is the song as of the voice; and that | appertaineth to the lessons. | And thereof saith the Psalmist Sing ye to him in deporting your voice. The | third, that is by blowing, | appertaineth to the song of a trumpet and hereof saith David: Praise ye him in the | sound of the trumpet. | The temple or the church is hallowed for five reasons. The first is, because that the devil and all his | power be put out, whereof | S. Gregory recounteth in his dialogue, that as a church of the heretic Arians was yielded to | good christian men, and | they hallowed it, and had brought in relics of SS. Fabian and Sebastian, and of S. | Agatha, all the people were | there assembled, and they heard suddenly a hog cry, and run hither and thither | | among their feet, seeking the doors of the church, and he might not be seen of no man, whereof the | people had great marvel. But | our Lord showed to them that it was the foul spirit that dwelled tofore in that place: and that | night was a great noise | upon the covering of the church, like as they had run upon it, and the second night yet a | greater noise, and the | third night was so fearful and so horrible a great noise, as that the church should have | | | been thrown down unto | the foundament, and then the wicked spirits departed and came no more there. The | hideous sound signified that | for certain the fiend issued by constraint the which he had long holden. Secondly, | it is hallowed because that | they that flee to the church should be safe; whereof some churches, after the | dedication, be privileged of princes, | that they that be culpable and flee to the church that they may be safe. | Whereof the canon saith: | The church defendeth the culpables from blood that they ne loose life ne member. | And therefore Joab fled | to the tabernacle and took the altar. Thirdly, it is hallowed because that the orisons be | enhanced there. And it is | signified in the book of Kings, the viii. chapter, when the temple was dedicated, | Solomon said: Whosoever shall | pray in this place thou shalt hear him, Lord in heaven, and when thou hast | heard him thou shalt be | to him debonair. And we worship God in the churches towards the east for three | reasons, after that Damascene | saith in the fourth book, the fifth chapter. First, because that we show that we | require our peace. Secondly, | that we behold Jesu Christ crucified. Thirdly, that we show that we abide him a | judge to come. And also | he saith: God planted paradise in the house of the east from the which he exiled man | because he brake his commandments; | and made him to dwell tofore paradise toward the occident, ere he went | any other part, and therefore | we look now in the church toward the orient. And our Lord crucified beheld | toward the occident, and thus | look we worshipping him toward the orient. He was borne on high, and so | | | worship him the apostles, | and so shall he come as they saw him going to heaven. And so worship we him | towards the orient, in abiding | till he come. Fourthly, the church is hallowed because that there louings and | prayings be given to God, | and this is done at the seven times or hours canonical at matins, at prime, at tierce, | and so at the others. | And howbeit that God is to be praised in all the hours of the day, but because our | infirmity sufficeth not thereto, | it is ordained that at these hours we praise God specially, because that | these hours in some things | be more privileged than the others; for at midnight when matins be sung Jesu Christ | was born, and also was taken | and despised of the Jews; and at the same hour he depoiled hell. Taking midnight | largely, that is to say afore | day, he arose from death to life, and he appeared at the hour of prime, and it is said | that he shall come into | the doom at midnight. Whereof S. Jerome saith: I ween that those things that the | apostles have said shall | be before day. For the day of the vigil of Easter, before midnight it behoveth not to | leave matins, for the people | abide the coming of Jesu Christ. And when this time shall come, men ought to | have surety that all men make | feast that day. And we sing at that hour praisings because that we give him | thankings for his nativity, | for his taking, and of the deliverance of the holy apostles, so that we may busily | abide his coming. And | the lauds be adjousted to the matins because that the morrowtide he drowned the | Egyptians in the sea, and | created the world and arose. And at this hour let us give thankings to God that we be | | | not drowned in the sea of | this world with the Egyptians, and that we render louings to God for our | creation and for his resurrection. | At the hour of prime Jesu Christ came into the temple and the people | assembled there to him, as | Luke saith, the xxi. chapter. He was at that hour presented to Pilate, and at this | hour, after he was risen, | he appeared first to the women. And this is the first hour of the day, and therefore let us | render our thankings to God | and praising, because that we may follow Jesu Christ, that we may yield to him | the first fruit of all | our works. At the hour of tierce Jesu Christ was crucified in the tongues of the Jews, and | was bound to a stake and | beaten tofore Pilate. And as it is said, the stake or pillar that he was bound to, | showeth yet his blood. | And this same hour was the Holy Ghost sent to the apostles. In the sixth hour he | was nailed to the cross, and | darknesses were throughout all the world, so that the sun bewept the | death of his Lord, and | covered him with black in such wise that he gave no light to them that crucified his | Lord. And at this hour | was he at dinner the day of his Ascension with his disciples. At the hour of nones Jesu | Christ gave up his spirit, | and the knight pierced his side, and the company of the apostles had a custom for | to assemble then for to pray, | and Jesu Christ ascended that hour into heaven. And for these honours praise we | our Lord at all hours. | At evensong time Jesu Christ made the sacrament of his body and of his blood | together; he washed the | feet of his apostles and disciples; he was taken down off the cross and borne to | | | the sepulchre; he manifested | and showed himself unto his disciples in habit of a pilgrim, and for these things | the church giveth thanks | to God at this hour. At compline Jesu Christ sweat water and blood, his | monument was delivered to | be kept and there he rested. And when he was risen, he showed himself and | declared peace to his apostles. | And of these things give we louings and thanks to God. And hereof saith S. | Bernard how we ought | to render and give thankings to God: My brethren, saith he, when ye sacrifice to God | with praisings and thankings, | join your mind to your words, and thy talent to thy wit, and gladness to thy | talent, and demurety to thy | gladness, and humility to thy demurety, and to humility free will. | Fifthly, the church is | hallowed for to administer there the sacraments of the church. Like as on the table of | God, in which the sacraments | be communicated and administered; and some sacraments be administered and | given to them that enter, | as baptism, and some be given to them that issue out as is the last unction or | annealing. And some be | given to the abiders and dwellers as is order. And some fight and fall, to them is | given penance. Some other | contrarien, and to them is given hardiness of courage for to enforce them, and that | is by confirmation. And | to other is given meat for to sustain them, and this is for to receive the sacred body | of Jesu Christ. And sometime | is taken away the letting, that they fall not into sin, and that is by conjunction of | marriage. Secondly, it is | to wit how she is hallowed. And it ought first to be known of the altar, and after of | the church. And many things | appertain to the hallowing of the altar. And first be made on the four corners of the | altar four crosses of holy | water, and environed about seven times, and seven times arrosed and besprent with | the holy water stick or | sprinkler. After, the incense is burnt on the altar, and after, it is anointed with chrism | and then it is covered | with black cloth, and this representeth them that go to the altar. For they ought | first to have charity in | four manners, that is, they love God, and themselves, their friends and their enemies. | And this signifieth the | four crosses on the four corners of the altar. And of these four corners is said in Genesis | the xxviii. chapter: Thou | shalt stretch to the orient, to the occident, to the north and to the south. Or by the | four crosses that be made | in the four corners be signified that Jesu Christ saved by the cross the four | parts of the world, or for | this, that they signify that we ought to bear the cross of Jesu Christ in four manners, | that is, in the heart by | thought; in the mouth by confession; in the body by mortification; and in the | visage by continual impression. | Secondly, to have care and owe to watch: and this signifieth the environing or | going about the altar. For | they sing then: The waits of the city have found me. For they ought have cure and | watch upon them that | be to them committed. And for this cause putteth Gilbert the negligence of prelates | among the things disordinate. | These be foul things and much perilous, that is to wit, a blind archer, a halting | messenger, a prelate negligent, | a doctor not conning, and a dumb crier, this be a perilous fellowship. | Or by the seven goings about | of the altar be signified seven considerations that we ought to have unto the | seven virtues of the humility | of Jesu Christ, and to go oft about them. The first virtue is that he that was rich | be made poor. The second, | that he was put in the rack or in the crib. The third, that he was subject to his | parents. The fourth, that | he inclined his head under the power of his servant. The fifth, that he sustained the | disciple, thief and traitor. | The sixth, that before a felonous judge he held his peace and spake not. The | seventh, that he prayed | piteously for them that crucified him. Thirdly, they ought to have mind of the | passion of Jesu Christ, and | that is signified by the sprinkling and casting of the water, which signified seven effusions of | | | the blood of Jesu Christ. | The first, was in the circumcision. The second, was in the orison. The third, | when he was beaten at the | pillar. The fourth, when he was crowned with thorns. The fifth, in piercing his | hands. The sixth, in nailing | his feet, and the seventh, in opening of his side. And these arrosements or | sprinkling of blood were | made with the sprinkle of humility, and of charity without estimation. And the | altar is environed seven | times for to signify that the seven gifts of the Holy Ghost be given in the baptism; | or by the seven goings | about be signified the seven comings of Jesu Christ. The first, was from heaven into | the belly of his mother. | The second, from the belly into the crib. The third, from the crib into the world. The | fourth, from the world unto | the gallows of the cross. The fifth, from the cross unto the sepulchre. The sixth, | from the sepulchre to hell. | The seventh, from hell when he arose and ascended unto heaven. | Fourthly, they should have | ardent prayer, amorous and devout, and this is signified by the incense which is | burnt upon the altar, | and then it hath virtue to ascend by the lightness of the fume, and to comfort by his | quality, and to conjoin | by the gum, and to confirm by that it is aromatous or well smelling. And all in like | wise is the orison or prayer | which ascendeth to the mind of God; it comforteth the soul as to the sin past in | asking medicine; it estraineth | as to that which is to come for to beware thereof; it confirmeth as to that is | present in getting defence | and keeping. Or it may be said that devout orison is signified by the incense, that | | | it appertaineth that it ascend | to God. And hereof saith Ecclesiasticus: Orison of humility giveth to God sweet | savour when it issueth | out of a heart inflamed. And the apostle saith much incense is given to him. | Fifthly, they ought to have | resplendor or brightness of conscience and the odour of good renown. And this is | signified by the chrism or cream; | they ought to have a pure conscience so that they might say with the apostle: | Our glory is the witness of | our conscience and also is good renown. Whereof the apostle to Timothy: It | behoveth that he have good | witness of them that be without; and Chrysostom saith that the clerks ought not | to have no filth, ne in word, | ne in deed, ne in thought, ne in opinion, for they be the virtue and beauty of the | church, and if they be evil | they make foul all the church. Sixthly, they ought to have cleanness of good | work; which is signified | by the white clothes and clean of which the altar is covered. The usage of coverture and | of vestments were found | for to cover, for to chauffe, and keep warm, and for to array ordinately. And the good | works cover the nakedness | of the soul, whereof the apostle saith: Clothe thee with white vesture that the | confusion of thy nakedness | appear not. They array the soul with honesty, whereof the apostle saith to the | Romans: Clothe you with |vestments of light, they enchauffe and inflame us in charity. Where of it is said: | Be not thy vestments hot, | for it availeth little to him that goeth to the altar if he have sovereign dignity and a | life defamed. It should be an | horrible thing to see him in a high seat and a low life; sovereign degree and low | estate; a sad visage and | light in works; full of words and nothing of deed; noble of authority and fleeing courage. | Secondly, it ought to be | seen how the church is sacred and hallowed. And to that appertain many things, for | | | the bishop goeth all about | three times, and at every time that he cometh to the gate or door he knocketh with his | cross, saying: Princes open | your gates. And the church is washed within and without with holy water, and a | cross of ashes is made on | the pavement, and of sand a travers, the angle from the orient unto that which is | against the occident. And | the A B C is written within of letters of Greek and of Latin. Crosses be made on the | walls of the church, and | they be anointed with cream. And it is to wit that the three first goings about signify | three goings about that | Jesu Christ made for the hallowing of his church. The first was when he came | from heaven into the world. | The second was when he descended from the world into hell. The third was when | he came again from hell | and ascended into heaven. Or the three goings about show that the church is hallowed | in the honour of the Trinity, | or for to signify the three estates of them that be to be saved of the church, that be | virgins, continent, and married | folk; which be signified in the disposition of the church material. Like as Hugo | de Sancto Victore showeth, | for he saith: That the sanctuary signifieth the order of virgins, the choir or | quire signifieth the continent, | and the body signifieth the order of them that be married. For the sanctuary is | straiter than the choir or quire, | and the quire straiter than the body, for the order of virgins is more worthy | than the continents, and | the order of the continents is more worthy than they that be married. The second | knocking at the door signifieth | the treble right that Jesu Christ hath in the church, wherefore it ought to be | | | opened to him. For it is his | by creation, and sweet by redemption and by promise of glorifying. And of this | threefold right saith Anselm: | Certainly, Lord, for so much as thou hast made me, I owe myself all to thee; | because thou redeemest me, | I owe myself all to thee; because thou hast promised to me so great things, I owe | myself unto thy love; and | because thou art greater than I, for whom thou gavest thyself, and to whom thou | promiseth thyself, I owe | to thee more than myself. And this that the bishop crieth thrice: Open your gates, etc., | signifieth the treble power | that he hash, in heaven. in the world, and in hell. And this that the church is thrice | washed within and without | signifieth three causes. The first is for to put out the devil, and therefore is said in | the blessing of the water, | that it be blessed to chase away all the power of the enemy, the fiend with his | angels cursed and shrewd. | And thou oughtest to know that this holy water is made of four things, that is, of | water, of salt, of wine, and | of ashes, which things put out the devil and chaseth him away. By the water is | signified the effusion of tears; | by the wine is signified spiritual gladness; and by the salt is showed mure | discretion, and by the ashes | is profound humility. Secondly, it is dedicate for to make herself clean from | all earthly things which | were corrupt by sin, and therefore because it should be clean from all ordure it is | washed with holy water, | so that it be clean and pure. And this was signified in the old law, that all should be | cleansed by water. Thirdly, | it is hallowed for to take away all malediction, for the earth at the beginning was | | | cursed with his fruit because | man was deceived by fruit, and the water was not cursed. And therefore it is said | that our Lord ate fish, but it | is not found that ever he ate any flesh by name save the paschal lamb, and that | was in ensample for to accomplish | the commandment of the law. And because that all malediction and cursings | should be taken away, | is the church washed with holy water. Fourthly, the A B C is written in the pavement in | Latin and in Greek, and this | signifieth the communion of that one and of that other people. Or it signifieth that | one and that other testament, | or the articles of our faith. For the scripture of the letters, Greek and Latin, that | were made on the table | of the cross, representeth the assemble of the faith made by Jesu Christ on the cross | and therefore is this cross | laid and made transverse from the angle of the orient unto the angle of the | occident, for to signify that | it that was first on the right side was made the left side, and that which was at the | head was made at the end, | and thus to the contrary. And it representeth the scripture of that one and that other | testament which was accomplished | by Jesu Christ on the cross, for he said when he died: All is | accomplished. And the cross is | made transverse because that the one was changed into that other, for all the law | is in a roll. Thirdly, the | crosses be painted in the church, and that is for three causes. The first is to fear | the devils, for when they see | the sign of the cross there, by which they have been put out, they be afeard and | dare not enter, for they | doubt and dread much the sign of the cross. And hereof saith Chrysostom: In what | | | place they see the sign of the | cross they shall flee, for they dread the staff of which they have been hurt. | Thirdly, it representeth the | articles of the faith. For the pavement of the church is the foundament of our faith, | the letters that be within | written be articles of our faith, by the which the rude people and new be introduced, | and they of the one and | other people which ought repute them for ashes and for powder, after this that | Abraham saith in Genesis: | I shall speake to my Lord as I were ashes and powder. Secondly, for to show the sign | of the victory of Jesu Christ, | for these crosses be signs and banners of Jesu Christ and of his victory, and | therefore be there painted | the crosses for to show that the place is divine, subject to God. And also it is of | custom to emperors and to | other princes, that when a town or city is taken or yielded, for to set up within the | banners and the ensigns | of the lords, to signify that it is subject to them. Thirdly, for to represent the apostles it | is used for to set up twelve | lights before the cross, for to represent the twelve apostles, which by the faith of | God crucified they illumined | all the world, and anointed with cream in baptism, for oil signifieth | cleanness of conscience, and | balm signifieth the odour of good life. And it is to know that the church or the | temple was, as it is said, assailed | by three persons, by Jeroboam, by Nebuchadnezzar, and by Antiochus. For | as it is read in the book of Kings: | Jeroboam did do make two calves gilt and did do set that one in Judæa, | and that other in Bethel, | which is said the house of God. And thus did he by covetousness, and therefore it | | | is signified that the covetousness | of clerks maketh much foul the house of God, the which avarice reigneth | much in them, whereof S. Jerome | saith, that from the least unto the greatest they follow all avarice. And S. | Bernard saith the same: | Who wilt thou give me of these provosts that entend not more to empty the purse of his | subjects than to take away | from them their sins? The calves be their nephews and their sons, which they set | in Bethel, the house of God. | And the church is assailed by Jeroboam after this that it is said: The Church is | assailed when it is edified | and builded of the avarice of the usurers and thieves. Whereof is read that an usurer had | founded a church, and then | he prayed the bishop for to dedicate and hallow it. And as the bishop and his clerks made the | office of the dedication he | saw the devil which was in a chair by the altar in the habit of a bishop, and he said to | the bishop, Why hallowest | thou my church? Cease ye, for the right thereof appertaineth to me, because it is | made of usury and of ravin. | And then the bishop and his clerks were sore afraid and fled, and anon the devil | destroyed the church with | great storm and great noise. Nebuzar-adan as is read in the xxv. chapter of the book | of Kings that he burnt | the house of God for he was prince of the cooks, and signifieth them that serve to | gluttony and to luxury, | and make of their belly their god. And after this that the apostle saith, that their belly | | | is their god. And Hugh | of S. Victore showeth how their belly is their god, and saith: Men were wont to make | temples to the gods, and | dress altars, ordain ministers for to serve them, to sacrifice beasts and to burn | incense. But now the belly | and the kitchen is the temple, the table is the altar, the cooks be ministers, the | beasts sacrificed be the flesh | sodden and roasted, the incense is the odour of the savour. The king Antiochus | was the most proud man | and the most covetous, and assailed the church of God, as it is read in the | Maccabees. And by him | be signified pride and covetise, which covet not to profit but to serve themselves, and | they defoul much the church | of God. Of which covetousness and pride S. Bernard saith: They go | worshipfully of the goods | of our Lord, and yet they give him no worship, they go every day as goliards in habit | shining, and royal apparel, | they bear gold on their bridles, on their saddles and on their spurs; their | harness shines more than | the altars. And thus as the house of God was dishonoured by these three, right so | was it dedicated by other three. | And Moses made the first dedication, and Solomon the second, and the third | Judas Maccabeus. By the | which is signified that we ought to have in the dedication of the church the | humility that was in Moses, | the wisdom and discretion that was in Solomon, and the very confession of faith | that was in Judas Maccabeus. | And after it appertaineth to see of the dedication of the temple spiritual, which | temple we be, that is to wit, | the assembly of good christian men. And this temple is made of living stones, | | | as S. Peter saith: Let | us edify whilst the stones be quick, it is said of stones polished; whereof is sung: the jointures been | made of polished stones; | it is made of square stones four cornered, that is to say of spiritual stones that have | four squares, that is to wit, | faith, hope, charity and good works, which be all equal as S. Gregory saith: As | long as thou believest thou | hast hope, and lovest as much as thou believest, and hopest and lovest to work | in them. In this temple | the altar is the heart, and upon this altar three things ought to be offered to God. The first thing | is the fire of love perdurable, | like as the apostle saith, the fire of dilection shall be perdurable and shall never | fail at the altar of the heart. | The second thing is the incense of orison and prayer well smelling, as it is said | in Paralipomenon, Aaron and Phineas, | burnt incense upon the altar of sacrifices, that is to say where were | burnt the things precious | and well smelling. The third thing is sacrifice of righteousness, and this is the | offering of penance in sacrifice | of perfect love, and in calves of mortifying of the flesh, and hereof saith | David: Thou shalt accept | the sacrifice of righteousness, the oblations and holocausts. This temple spiritual that | we be, is of God in the manner | as the temple material. For first the sovereign bishop when he findeth the door | of the heart shut, he goeth | about three times, when he bringeth to our mind the sin of the mouth, of the heart. | and of the work. And of | this treble going about saith he, as to the first I have gone about the city, that is to wit of | the heart. And the second | saith Isaiah: Take thy harp, and as to the third: The common woman is forgotten. | Secondly, he smiteth three | times the door of the heart, which is closed, to the end that it should be opened to | him. And he smiteth by | the stroke of benefice, of counsel and of playing. Of this treble stroke it is said in | the Proverbs: I have stretched | out my hand, etc. As to the evil and as to the benefits given he saith: Thou | despisest all my counsel, | and as to counsel inspired, thou despisest my counsellors, and to the blaming, that | is for the plaies to thee given. | Or this treble going about is done when he moveth us to reasonable knowledge of | sins, and to sorrow for them, | to avenge and blame ourselves for sin. Thirdly, he arroseth or watereth the | temple spiritual three times | with water, and so oft it ought to be watered or besprinkled. And this watering | signifieth three manners of | shedding of tears. For as S. Gregory saith: The thought of an holy man should be | confused in sorrow, in considering | where he was, where he shall be, and where he is. Or he was said in sin; or | he shall be in judgment; | or he is in maleurte; and there is where is no joy. When he sheddeth then his tears of | the heart, considering that | he was in sin, and shall be in judgment for to give a reckoning for sin, then is this | temple watered once of water; | and when he is contrite to weep for his unhappiness and maleurte where he is, | the temple is watered the second | time. And when he weepeth for the joy where he is not, he arroseth or | watereth the temple the third time. | And thou oughtest to know that wine, salt, and ashes be meddled with this | water. For with the other | sacraments we ought to have wine of spiritual gladness, salt of ripe wisdom, and | ashes of deep humility. | Or by wine with water is understood the humility of Jesu Christ, that he had in | taking flesh human. The | wine with water is the word human; and by the salt is understood the holiness of his | life which is savour to all | of his religion. By the ashes is understood his passion. And of these three things we | ought to water our heart, | the which be, the blessing of his incarnation by which we be called to humility, the | ensample of his conversation | by the which we be conformed to holiness, and the mystery of his passion | by the which we be moved | to charity. Fourthly, in this temple of the heart spiritual is written the A B C, or the | scripture spiritual. And | this scripture is treble, that is to wit the evils of things, the witnesses of divine benefits, | and the accusation of his | proper trespasses. And of these three things saith the apostle to the Romans: The | | | people that have law do | naturally the things that be of the law. They that have no law make law to themselves. | They that show the work | of the law written in their heart, that is the first, the witness of their conscience is | the second, and he that thinketh | to accuse himself is the third. Fifthly, the cross ought to be painted in this | church, that is to understand | that it ought to have the sharpnesses of penance. And these sharpnesses ought to | be anointed and have light | of the fire, for they be not only to be suffered in patience, but with good will and | by charity. And hereof saith | S. Bernard: He that is threatened and menaced with the dread of Jesu Christ | he beareth the cross in patience; | he that profiteth in hope beareth it gladly and with good will, but he that is | perfect in charity embraceth | it ardently, and much people see our crosses that see not our anointings. And | he that shall have all these | things in him shall be the temple of God to his honour, and shall be plainly | worthy that God inhabit | and dwell in him by grace, so that he may dwell in God by glory, the which he give us | that liveth and reigneth God | in heaven, world without end. Amen. Here follow the stories of the Bible. | The Life of Adam | The Sunday of Septuagesima beginneth the story of the Bible, in which is read the legend and story of Adam | which followeth. In the beginning | God made and created heaven and earth. The earth was idle and void and covered with | darkness. And the spirit of | God was borne on the waters, and God said: Be made light, and anon light | was made. And God saw | that light was good, and divided the light from darkness, and called the light day | | | and darkness night. | And thus was made light with heaven and earth first, and even and morning was made one day. | The second day he | made the firmament, and divided the waters that were under the firmament from them that were above, | and called the firmament heaven. | The third day were made on the earth herbs and fruits in their kind. The | fourth day God made the sun | and moon and stars, etc. The fifth day he made the fishes in the water and birds | in the air. The sixth | day God made the beasts on the earth, every one in his kind and gender. And God saw | that all these works | were good and said: Faciamus hominem, etc. Make we man unto our similitude and | image. Here spake the | Father to the Son and Holy Ghost, or else as it were the common voice of three | persons, when it was said | make we, and to our, in plural number. Man was made to the image of God in his soul. | Here it is to be noted | that he made not only the soul with the body, but he made both body and soul. As to | the body he made male and | female. God gave to man the lordship and power upon living beasts. When God | had made man it is not | written: Et vidit quod esset bonum, quia in proximo sciebat eum lapsurum. For yet | he was not perfect till | the woman was made, and therefore it is read: It is not good the man to be alone. | Thus in six days was heaven | and earth made and all the ornation of them. And then he made the seventh day on | which he rested, not for | that he was weary, but ceased his operation, and showed the seventh day which he | blessed. Thus be shortly | showed the generations of heaven and earth, for here be determined the works of | the six days and the seventh | day he sanctified and made holy. God had planted in the beginning Paradise a place | of desire and delices. | And man was made in the field of Damascus; he was made of the slime of the earth. | | | Paradise was made the third | day of creation, and was beset with herbs, plants and trees, and is a place of | most mirth and joy. In | the midst whereof be set two trees, that is the tree of life, and that other the tree of | knowing good and evil. | And there is a well, which casteth out water for to water the trees and herbs of | Paradise. This well is the | mother of all waters, which well is divided into four parts. One part is called | Phison. This goeth about Inde. | The second is called Gijon, otherwise Nilus, and that runneth about | Ethiopia, the other two be called | Tigris and Euphrates. Tigris runneth towards Assyria, and Euphrates is called | fruitful, which runneth in | Chaldea. These four floods come and spring out of the same well, and depart, and | yet in some place some | of them meet again. Then God took man from the place of his creation and | brought him into Paradise, | for to work there, not to labour needily, but in delighting and recreating him, | and that he should keep Paradise. | For like as Paradise should refresh him, so should he labour to serve God, | and there God gave him | a commandment. Every commandment standeth in two things, in doing or | forbidding. In doing he commanded | him to eat of all the trees of Paradise, in forbidding he commanded that he | should not eat of the tree | of the knowledge of good and evil. This commandment was given to the man, and by | the man it went to the woman. | For when the woman was made it was commanded to them both, and hereto | he set a pain, saying: | Whatsoever day thou eatest thereof thou shalt die by death. God said: It is not good a man to | | | be alone, make we to him | an helper like to himself for to bring forth children. Adam supposed that some helper to him had been | among the beasts which | had been like to him. Therefore God brought to Adam all living beasts of the earth and | air, in which be understood | them of the water also, which with one commandment all came tofore him. | They were brought for two | causes, one was because man should give to each of them a name, by which they | should know that he should | dominate over them, and the second cause was because Adam should know that | there was none of them | like to him. And he named them in the Hebrew tongue, which was only the language and | none other at the beginning. | And so none being found like unto him, God sent in Adam a lust to sleep, which | was no dream, but as is | supposed in an extasy or in a trance; in which was showed to him the celestial court. | Wherefore when he awoke | he prophesied of the conjunction of Christ to his church, and of the flood | that was to come, and of the | doom and destruction of the world by fire he knew, which afterward he told to | his children. Whiles that | Adam slept, God took one of his ribs, both flesh and bone, and made that a woman, and set her | tofore Adam. Which then | said: This is now a bone of my bones and flesh of my flesh; and Adam gave her a | name like as her lord, | and said she should be called virago, which is as much as to say as made of a man, | and is a name taken of a man. | And anon, the name giving, he prophesied, saying: Because she is taken of | the side of a man, therefore | a man shall forsake and leave father and mother and abide and be adherent unto | | | his wife, and they shall be | two in one flesh; and though they be two persons, yet in matrimony and wedlock | they be but one flesh, | and in other things twain. For why, neither of them had power of his own flesh. They | were both naked and were | not ashamed, they felt nothing of the moving of their flesh, ne to refrain them | as we now do, for they | stood both in the state of innocence. Then the serpent which was hotter than any | beast of the earth and naturally | deceivable, for he was full of the devil Lucifer, which was deject and cast out | of heaven, had great | envy to man that was bodily in Paradise, and knew well, if he might make him to | trespass and break God's | commandments, that he should be cast out also. Yet he was afeard to be taken or | espied of the man, he | went to the woman, not so prudent and more prone to slide and bow. And in the | form of the serpent, | for then the serpent was erect as a man. Bede saith that he chose a serpent having a | maiden's cheer, for like | oft apply to like, and spake by the tongue of the serpent to Eve, and said: Why | commanded you God that | ye should not eat of all the trees of Paradise? This he said to find occasion to say | that he was come for. | Then the woman answered and said: Ne forte moriamur, lest haply we die, which she | said doubting, for lightly | she was flexible to every part. Whereunto anon he answered: Nay in no wise ye shall | die, but God would not | that ye should be like him in science, and knowing that when ye eat of this tree ye | shall be as gods knowing | good and evil, he as envious forbade you. And anon the woman, elate in pride and | | | willing to be like to God, | accorded thereto and believed him. The woman saw that the tree was fair to look on, | and clean and sweet | of savour, took and ate thereof, and gave unto Adam of the same; happily desiring him by | fair words. But Adam anon | agreed, for when he saw the woman not dead he supposed that God had said that | they should die to fear | them with, and then ate of the fruit forbidden. And anon their sight was opened that | they saw their nakedness, | and then anon they understood that they had trespassed, for anon their | flesh began to move and | stir to concupiscence. For before that they had eaten of the forbidden fruit, the | movings were repressed and | closed as in young children. And then, after they had sinned, they were | opened like springs of water | and began to move, and then they were expert and knew them. And like as they | were inobedient to their superior, | right so their members began to move against their superior, which is | reason, and they felt their | first moving in their privy members, and thereof they were ashamed. And thus they | knew that they were naked, | and they took fig leaves and sewed them together for to cover their members in | manner of breeches. And anon | after, they heard the voice of our Lord God walking, and anon they hied | them. Our Lord called the | man and said: Adam, where art thou? Calling him in blaming him and not as | knowing where he was, but | as who said: Adam, see in what misery thou art. Which answered: I have hid me, | Lord, for I am naked. | Our Lord said: Who told thee that thou wert naked, but that thou hast eaten of the tree for | bidden? He then not meekly | confessing his trespass, but laid the fault on his wife, and on him as giver of the | woman to him, and said: | The woman that thou gavest to me as a fellow, gave to me of the tree, and I ate thereof. | And then our Lord said | to the woman: Why didst thou so? Neither she accused herself, but laid the sin on the | serpent, and privily she laid | the fault on the maker of him. The serpent was not demanded, for he did it not of | himself, but the devil by him. | And our Lord, cursing them, began at the serpent, keeping an order and | congruous number of curses. | The serpent was the first and sinned most, for he sinned in three things. The | woman next and sinned lese | than he, but more than the man, for she sinned in two things. The man sinned last | and least, for he sinned | but in one. The serpent had envy, he lied, and deceived, for these three he had three | curses. Because he had envy | at the excellence of man, it was said to him: Thou shalt go and creep on thy breast; | because he lied he is punished | in his mouth, when it was said: Thou shalt eat earth all the days of thy life. | Also he took away his voice | and put venom in his mouth. And because he deceived, it was said: I shall put | enmity between thee and | woman, and thy seed and her seed. She shall break thy head, etc. In two things the | woman sinned, in pride and | eating the fruit. Because she sinned in pride, he meeked her, saying: Thou shalt | | | be under the power of man, | and he shall have lordship over thee, and he shall put thee to affliction. Now is she | subject to a man by condition | and dread, which before was but subject by love; and because she sinned in the | fruit, she is punished in her | fruit, when it was said to her: Thou shalt bring forth children in sorrow; in the | pain of sorrow standeth | the curse, but in bringing forth of children is a blessing. And so, in punishing, God | forgat not to have mercy, | which is to be noted, etc. And because Adam sinned but only in eating of the fruit, | therefore he was punished | in seeking his meat, as it is said to him: Accursed be the earth in thy work, that is | to say for thy work of thy sin, | for which is made that the earth that brought forth good and wholesome fruits | plenteously, from henceforth | shall bring forth but seldom, and also none without man's labour, and also | sometime weeds, briars, and | thorns shall grow. And he added: Thereto shalt thou eat herbs of the earth, as who | saith thou shalt be like | a beast or jument. He cursed the earth because the trespass was of the fruit of the earth | and not of the water. He | added thereto to him of labour: In the sweat of thy cheer thou shalt eat thy bread unto | the time thou return again | into the earth; that is to say till thou die, for thou art earth, and into earth thou shalt | go again. Then Adam, | wailing and sorrowing the misery that was to come of his posterity, named his wife Eve, | which is to say, mother | of all living folk. Then God made to Adam and Eve two leathern coats of the skins of dead | beasts, to the end that they | bare with them the sign of mortality, and said: Lo, Adam is made as one of us, | knowing good and evil, | now lest he put his hand and take of the tree of life and live ever, as who saith: | beware and cast him out, | lest he take and eat of the tree of life. And so he was cast out of Paradise, and set in | | | the field of Damascus | where as he was made and taken from, for to work and labour there. And our Lord set | Cherubim to keep Paradise | of delight with a burning sword and pliant, to the end that none should enter | there ne come to the tree of life. | After then that Adam was cast out of Paradise and set in the world, he knew his wife and engendered | Cain, the fifteenth year | after he was made, and his sister Calmana. They came out of Paradise virgins, as | Methodius saith, and when | Adam was made, he was made a perfect man as a man of thirty years of age when | he was but one day old, | and he might well have gotten many children tofore Cain, but after another fifteen | years was Abel born, | and his sister Delbora. When Adam was an hundred and thirty years of age, | Cain slew Abel his brother. | Truth it is, after many days Cain and Abel offered sacrifice and gifts unto God. It is | to be believed that Adam | taught his sons to offer to God their tithes and first fruits. Cain offered fruits, for he | was a ploughman and tiller | of earth, and Abel offered milk and the first of the lambs, Moses saith, of the | fattest of the flock. And | God beheld the gifts of Abel, for he and his sacrifices were acceptable to our Lord; | and as to Cain his sacrifices, | God beheld them not, for they were not to him acceptable, he offered withies and | thorns. And as some doctors | say, fire came from heaven and lighted the sacrifice of Abel, and the gifts of Cain | pleased not our Lord, for the | sacrifice would not belight nor burn clear in the light of God. Whereof | Cain had great envy unto | his brother Abel, which arose against him and slew him. And our Lord said to him: | | | Where is Abel thy brother? | He answered and said: I wot never, am I keeper of my brother? Then our Lord said: | What hast thou done? The | voice of the blood of thy brother crieth to thee from the earth, wherefore thou art | cursed, and accursed be | the earth that received the blood of thy brother by his mouth of thy hands. When | thou shalt work and labour | the earth it shall bring forth no fruit, but thou shalt be fugitive, vagabond, and void | on the earth. This Cain | deserved well to be cursed, knowing the pain of the first trespass of Adam, yet he | added thereto murder and | slaughter of his brother. Then Cain, dreading that beasts should devour him, or if he | went forth he should be | slain of the men, or if he dwelt with them, they would slay him for his sin, damned | himself, and in despair said: | My wickedness is more than I can deserve to have forgiveness, whoso find me | shall slay me. This he said | of dread, or else wishing, as who said, would God he would slay me. Then our Lord | said: Nay not so, thou | shalt die, but not soon, for whosoever slayeth Cain shall be punished seven sithes | more, for he should deliver | him from dread, from labour and misery, and added that he should be punished | personally sevenfold more. | This punition shall endure to him in pain unto the seventh, Lameth, whosomever | shall slay seventh Cain | shall loose seven vengeances. Some hold that his pain endured unto the seventh | generation, for he committed | seven sins. He departed not truly, he had envy to his brother, he wrought | guilefully, he slew his | brother falsely, he denied it, he despaired and damned, he did no penance. And after he | | | went into the east, | fugitive and vagabond. Cain knew his wife which bare Enoch, and he made a city and | named it Enoch after the | name of his son Enoch. Here it showeth well that this time were many men, though | their generation be not said, | whom Cain called to his city, by whose help he made it, whom he induced to | theft and robbery. He | was the first that walled or made cities; dreading them that he hurted, for surety he brought his | people into the towns. | Then Enoch gat Irad, and Irad Mehujael, and he gat Methusael, and he gat Lameth, which was | the seventh from Adam and | worst, for he brought in first bigamy, and by him was committed first adultery, | against the law of God | and of nature, and against the decree of God. This Lameth took two wives, Adah and | Zilla; of Adah he gat Jabal | which found first the craft to make folds for shepherds and to change their pasture, | and ordained flocks | of sheep, and departed the sheep from the goats after the quality, the lambs by | themselves, and the older | by themselves, and understood the feeding of them after the season of the | year. The name of his | brother was Jubal, father of singers in the harp and organs, not of the instruments, | for they were found long | after, but he was the finder of music, that is to say of consonants of accord, such as | shepherds use in their | delights and sports. And forasmuch as he heard Adam prophesy of two | judgments by the fire | and water, that all things should be destroyed thereby, and that his craft new found | should not perish, he | did do write it in two pillars or columns, one of marble, another of clay of the earth, to | | | the end that one should | endure against the water, and that other against the fire. Josephus saith that the pillar | of marble is yet in the land | of Syria. Of Zilla he begat Tubal-cain, which found first the craft of smithery and | working of iron, and made | things for war, and sculptures and gravings in metal to the pleasure of the | eyes, which he so working, | Tubal, tofore said, had delight in the sound of his hammers, of which he made | the consonants and tunes of | accord in his song. Noema, sister of Tubal-cain, found first the craft of diverse | texture. Lameth was a shooter, | and used to shoot at wild beasts, for none use of the meat of them, but only for to have | the skins for their clothing, | and lived so long that he was blind and had a child to lead him. And on a time by | adventure he slew Cain. | For Cain was alway afeard and hid him among bushes and briars, and the child that led | Lameth had supposed it had | been some wild beast and directed Lameth to shoot thereat, and so, weening to | shoot at a beast, slew Cain. | And when he knew that he had slain Cain, he with his bow slew the child, and thus | he slew them both to his damnation; | therefore as the sin of Cain was punished seven sithes, so was the sin of | Lameth seventy sithes and | seven. That is to say seventyseven souls that came of Lameth were perished | in the deluge and Noah's | flood; also his wife did him much sorrow, and evil-entreated him. And he being | wroth said that he suffered | that for his double homicide and manslaughter, yet nevertheless he feared him by | pain, saying: Why will ye slay | of me? he shall be more and sorer punished that slayeth me, than he that slew | Cain. After that Abel | was slain, Strabus saith that Adam avowed no more to have to do with his wife, but by an | angel he brake the vow, | because a son should be born to God. Yet nevertheless Josephus said that when Abel | was slain and Cain fled | away, Adam thought of procreation of children, and so when he was one | hundred and thirty years | old he engendered Seth like to his similitude, and he to the image of God. This Seth | was a good man, and he gat | Enos, and Enos Cainan, and Cainan begot Malaleel, and Malaleel Jared, and | Jared Enoch, and Enoch | Methuselah, and Methuselah Lamech, and Lamech Noah. And like as in the | generation of Cain the seventh | was the worst, so in the generation of Seth the seventh was the best, that was | | Enoch whom God took and brought him into Paradise, unto the time that he shall come with | Elias for to convert the | hearts of the fathers into the sons. And Adam lived after he had begotten Seth eight hundred | years, and engendered sons | and daughters. Some hold opinion thirty sons and thirty daughters, and some fifty | of that one and fifty of | that other. We find no certainty of them in the Bible. But all the days of Adam living| | | here in earth amount | to the sum of nine hundred and thirty years. And in the end of his life when he should | die, it is said, but of none | authority, that he sent Seth his son into Paradise for to fetch the oil of mercy, | where he received certain | grains of the fruit of the tree of mercy by an angel. And when he came again he | found his father Adam | yet alive and told him what he had done. And then Adam laughed first and then died. | And then he laid the grains | or kernels under his father's tongue and buried him in the vale of Hebron; and out of | his mouth grew three trees | of the three grains, of which trees the cross that our Lord suffered his passion on | was made, by virtue of which | he gat very mercy, and was brought out of darkness into very light of heaven. | To the which he bring | us that liveth and reigneth God, world without end. Here beginneth the History of Noah. | The first Sunday in Sexagesima. | After that Adam was dead, died Eve and was buried by him. At the beginning, in the first age, the | people lived long. Adam | lived nine hundred and thirty years, and Methuselah lived nine hundred and sixty-nine years. S. | Jerome saith that he died | the same year that the flood was. Then Noah was the tenth from Adam in the | generation of Seth, in whom | the first age was ended. The seventy interpreters say that this first age dured two | thousand two hundred and | forty-four years. S. Jerome saith not fully two thousand, and Methodius full two thousand, etc. | Noah then was a man perfect | and righteous and kept God's commandment. And when he was five hundred | years old, he gat Shem, | Ham, and Japhet. This time men began to multiply on the earth, and the children of God, | | | that is to say of Seth, | as religious, saw the daughters of men, that is to say of Cain, and were overcome by | concupiscence and took them | to their wives. This time was so much sin on the earth in the sin of lechery, | which was misused against | nature, wherefore God was displeased and determined in his prescience to destroy | man that he had made, | and said: I shall put man away that I have made, and my spirit shall not abide in man | for ever, for he is flesh. | As who said, I shall not punish man perpetually as I do the devil, for man is frail, and | yet ere I shall destroy | him I shall give him space and time of repentance and to amend him, if he wild. The | time of repentance shall | be one hundred and twenty years. Then Noah, righteous and perfect, walked with | God, that is in his laws, | and the earth was corrupt by sin and filled. When God saw the earth to be corrupt, and | that every man was corrupt | by sin upon the earth, he said to Noah: The end of all people is come tofore me except them | that shall be saved, and |the earth is replenished with their wickedness. I shall destroy them with the earth, id | est, with the fertility | of the earth. Make to thee an ark of tree, hewn, polished, and squared. And make there | divers places, and lime it | with clay and pitch within and without, that is to wit with glue which is so fervent, that | the timber may not be loosed. | And thou shalt make it three hundred cubits of length, fifty in breadth, and | thirty of height. And | make therein divers distinctions of places and chambers and of wardrobes. And the ark had | a door for to enter in | and come out, and a window was made thereon which that the Hebrews say was of | | | crystal. This ark was on | making, from the beginning that God commanded first to make it, one hundred and | twenty years. In which time Noah | oft desired the people to leave their sin, and how he had spoken with God, | and that he was commanded | to make the ship, for God should destroy them for their sin, but if they left it. And | they mocked him and said | that he raved and was a fool, and gave no faith to his saying and continued in their | sin and wickedness. Then, | when the ark was perfectly made, God bade him to take into it of all the beasts of | the earth, and also of the | fowls of the air, of each two, male and female, that they may live. And also of all the | meats of the earth that be | comestible, that they may serve and feed thee and them. And Noah did all that our | Lord commanded him. Then | said our Lord to Noah: Enter thou and all thy household into the ark, that is to | say thou and thy wife and | thy three sons and their three wives. I have seen that thou art rightful in this | generation. Of all beasts | that be clean thou shalt take seven, and of unclean beasts but only two. And of the | birds seven and seven, male | and female, that they may be saved on the face of the earth. Yet after seven days I | shall rain upon the earth |forty days and forty nights, and shall destroy all the substance that I made on the | earth. And Noah did | all things that our Lord commanded him. He was six hundred years old when | the flood began on the earth. | And then Noah entered in and his sons, his wife, and the wives of his sons, all | into the ark to eschew the | waters of the flood. Of all the beasts and the fowls, and of all that moved and had life | | | on earth, male and female, | Noah took in to him as our Lord had bidden. And seven days after they were | entered, the water began | to increase. The wells of the abysms were broken, and the cataracts of heaven were | opened, that is to say the | clouds, and it rained on the earth forty days and forty nights. And the ark was | elevate and borne upon | the waters on height above the mountains and hills, for the water was grown higher | the waters on height above the mountains and hills, for the water was grown higher | mountains, that it should purge and wash the filth of the air. Then was consumed | all that was on the earth | living, man, woman, and beast and birds. And all that ever bare life, so that nothing | abode upon the earth, | for the water was fifteen cubits above the highest mountain of the earth. And when | Noah was entered he shut | the door fast without forth, and limed it with glue. And so the waters abode elevate | in height an hundred and | fifty days from the day that Noah entered in. And our Lord then remembered Noah | and all them that were | in the ark with him, and also on the beasts and fowls, and ceased the waters. And the | wells and cataracts were | closed, and the rains were prohibited, and forbidden to rain no more. The seventh | month, the twenty-seventh | day of the month, the ark rested on the hills of Armenia. The tenth month, of the | first day of the month, | the tops of the hills appeared first. After these forty days after the lessing of the | waters, Noah opened the | window and desired sore to have tidings of ceasing of the flood. And sent out a | raven for to have tidings, | and when he was gone he returned no more again, for peradventure she found | some dead carrion of a beast | swimming on the water, and lighted thereon to feed her and was left there. After | this he sent out a dove | which flew out, and when she could find no place to rest ne set her foot on, she | returned unto Noah and | he took her in. Yet then were not the tops of the hills bare. And seven days after he | sent her out again, | which at even returned, bearing a branch of an olive tree, burgeoning, in her mouth. And | after other seven days | he sent her again, which came no more again. Then in the year of Noah six hundred and | one, the first day of the | month, Noah opened the covering of the ark and saw that the earth was dry, but | he durst not go out, | but abode the commandment of our Lord. The second month, the twenty-seventh day of the | month, our Lord said | to Noah: Go out of the ark, thou and thy wife, thy sons and the wives of thy sons. He | commanded them to go | conjointly out which disjointly entered, and let go out with them all the beasts and | fowls living, and all the | reptiles, every each after his kind and gender, to whom our Lord said: Grow ye and | multiply upon the earth. | Then Noah issued out and his wife, and his sons with their wives, and all the beasts, | the same day a year after | they entered in, every one after his gender. Noah then edified an altar to our Lord and | took of all the beasts | that were clean and offered sacrifice unto our Lord; and our Lord smelled the | sweetness of the sacrifice | and said to Noah: From henceforth I shall not curse the earth for man, for he is | prone and ready to fall | from the beginning of his youth. I shall no more destroy man by such vengeance. And | then our Lord blessed them | and said: Grow ye and multiply the earth and be ye lords of all the beasts of | the earth, of the fowls | of the air, and of the fishes. I have given all things to you, but eat no flesh with the | blood. I command you to | slay no man, nor to shed no man's blood. I have made man after mine image. | Whosomever sheddeth his brother's | blood, his blood shall be shed. Go ye forth and grow and multiply and | fill the earth. This said |our Lord to Noah and his sons: Lo! I have made a covenant with you and with them that | shall come after you, that | I shall no more bring such a flood to slay all people, and in token thereof I have set | my rainbow in the clouds | of heaven: for who that trespasseth I shall do justice otherwise on him. Noah | lived after the flood three | hundred and fifty years. From the time of Adam until after Noah's flood, the time and | | | season was alway green and | tempered; and all that time men ate no flesh, for the herbs and fruits were then of | great strength and effect, | they were pure and nourishing. But after the flood the earth was weaker | and brought not forth so | good fruit, wherefore flesh was ordained to be eaten. And then Noah began to | labour for his livelihood | with his sons, and began to till the earth, to destroy briars and thorns and to plant | vines. And so on a time | Noah had drunk so much of the wine that he was drunk, and lay and slept, and his privy | member lay bare and open. | Ham, his middlest son espied it, and laughed and scorned his father, and called | his brethren to see, which | came backward for to cover their father, and would not look on it, and rebuked Ham | of his folly and sin. | And when Noah was covered with the mantle, anon he awoke, and when he understood | how Ham his son had scorned | him, he cursed him and also his son Canaan, and blessed Shem and Japhet | because they covered him. | All the days of Noah were nine hundred and fifty years and then he died. And after his death his sons | dealed all the world between | them, Shem had all Asia, Ham Africa, and Japhet all Europe. Thus was it departed. | Asia is the best part | and is as much as the other two, and that is in the east. Africa is the south part, and | therein is Carthage and | many rich countries, therein be blue and black men. Ham had that to his part of Africa. | The third part is Europe | which is in the north and west, therein is Greece, Rome and Germany. In Europe | | | reigneth now most the christian | law and faith, wherein is many a rich realm. And so was the world departed to | the three sons of Noah. | Here followeth the Life of Abraham. The Sunday called Quinquagesima is read in the church | the history of the holy patriarch | Abraham which was the son of Terah. This Terah was the tenth from Noah in the | generation of Shem. Japhet had | seven sons and Ham four sons. Out of the generation of Ham Nimrod came, | which was a wicked man | and cursed in his works, and began to make the tower of Babel which was great and | high. And at the making of | this tower, God changed the languages, in such wise that no man understood other. | For tofore the building of | that tower was but one manner speech in all the world, and there were made | seventy-two speeches. The | tower was great, it was ten miles about and five thousand and eighty-four steps of | height. This Nimrod was | the first man that found mawmetry and idolatry, which endured long and yet | doth. Then I turn again | to Terah which had three sons, which was Abram, Nahor, and Haran. Of Nahor came | Us, Bus, and Batuel. | Of Us came Job, of Bus came Balaam, and of Batuel Rebekah and Laban. Of Haran | came Lot and two daughters, | Melcha and Sara. Now I shall speak of Abram of whom our blessed lady | came. He wedded Sara, | daughter of his brother Haran. Abram was ever faithful and true, he was sixty-five | years old when his father | died, for whom he mourned till our Lord comforted him, which said to Abram: | Abram, make thee ready | and go out of thy land and kindred, and also from the house of thy father, and | come into the land that I | shall show to thee. I shall make thee grow into much people; I shall bless thee and | magnify thy name, and thou |shalt be blessed, and I shall bless them that bless thee, and curse them that curse | | | thee, and in thee shall |be blessed all the kindreds of the earth. Abram was seventy years old when he | departed from the land | of Haran, and he took with him Sara his wife, and Lot the son of his brother, and their meiny, and his | cattle and his substance, | and came into the land of Canaan, and came into the vale of Sichem, in which | were ill people which were | the people of Canaan. And our Lord said to Abram: I shall give to thee this land | and to thine heirs. | Then Abram did raise an altar on which he did sacrifice, and blessed and thanked our | Lord. Abram beheld all | the land toward the south, and saw the beauty thereof, and found it like as our Lord | told him. But he had not | been long in the land but that there fell great hunger therein, wherefore he left that | country and went into | Egypt and took with him Sara his wife. And as they went by the way Abram said to his | wife: I fear and dread | sore that when we come to this people, which be lawless, that they shall take thee for | thy beauty and slay me, | because they would use thee. Wherefore say thou art my sister, and I thy brother, and | she agreed thereto. And | when they were come in to that country the people saw that she was so fair, and anon | they told the king, which | anon commanded that she should be brought into his presence. And when she was | come, God of his good | grace so purveyed for her, that no man had power to use any lechery with her ne to do | her villainy. Wherefore the | king was feared that God would have taken vengeance on him for her, and sent | for Abram and said to | him that he should take his wife, and that he had evil done to say, that she was his sister, | | | and so delivered her again, | and gave him gold and silver, and bade that men should worship him in all his | land, and he should freely | at his pleasure depart with all his goods. Then after this Abram took his wife Sara | and went home again, | and came unto Bethel, and set there an altar of stone, and there he adored and | worshipped the name of God. | His store and beasts began to multiply, and Lot with his meiny was also | there. And their beasts began | so sore to increase and multiply, that unnethe the country might suffice to their | pasture, in so much that | rumour and grudging began to sourde and arise between the herdmen of Abram and the | herdmen of Lot. Then Abram | said to Lot: Lo! this country is great and wide, I pray thee to choose on | which hand thou wilt go, | and take it for thy meiny and thy beasts. And let no strife be between me and thee, ne | between my herdmen ne thy | herdmen. Lo! behold all the country is tofore thee, take which thou wilt; if thou | go on the right side, | I shall go on the left side, and if thou take the left, I will go on the right side. Then Lot | beheld the country and saw | a fair plain toward flom Jordan, which was pleasant, and the flood ran toward | Sodom and Gomorrah, which | was like a paradise, and took that part for him. And Abram took towards the | west, which was beside | the people of Canaan at the foot of mount Mamre. And Lot dwelled in Sodom. The | people of Sodom were worst | of all people. Our Lord said to Abram: Lift up thine eyes and see | directly from the place | that thou art now in, from the north to the south, and from the east to the west. All | | | this land that thou seest | I shall give thee, and to thy seed for evermore. I shall make thy seed as powder or | dust of the earth, who | that may number the dust of the earth shall number thy seed. Arise therefore and walk | the land in length and | in breadth, for I shall give it to thee. Abram moved then his tabernacle and dwelled in | the valley of Mamre, which | is in Hebron and set there his tabernacle. It happened soon after that there was a | war in that land, that four | kings warred again other five kings, which were of Sodom, Gomorrah and other. And | the four kings overthrew | the five and slew them, and spoiled and took all the substance of the country and | took also with them | Lot and all his goods. And a man gat away from them and came to Abram, and told him | how that Lot was taken and | led away. And then anon Abram did do gather his people together, the number of | three hundred and eighteen. | And followed after, and departed his people in two parties because they should | not escape. And Abram | smote in among them, and slew the kings, and rescued Lot and all his goods, and | delivered the men of Sodom | that were taken and the women. And they of Sodom came against him, and | Melchisedech came and met | with him, and offered to him bread and wine. This Melchisedech was king and | priest of Jerusalem and | all the country, and blessed Abram. And there Abram gave to him the tythes of all | he had. And the king of | Sodom would that Abram should have had such prey as he took, but he would not | have as much as the latchet | of a shoe, and thus gat Abram much love of all the people. After this our Lord | | | appeared to Abram in a | vision and said: Abram, dread thee nothing, I am thy protector, and thy reward and | meed shall be great. Abram | answered: Lord God, what wilt thou give me? Thou wottest well I have no | children, and sith I have | none I will well that Eleazar the son of my bailiff be my heir. Nay, said our Lord, he | shall not be thine heir, but | he that shall issue and come of thy seed shall be thine heir. Our Lord led him out | and bade him behold the | heaven, and number the stars if thou mayst, and said to him, so shall thy offspringing | and seed be. And Abram | believed it and gave faith to our Lord's words, and it was reputed to him to justice. | And our Lord said to him, | I am the Lord that led thee out of the land of Ur of the Chaldees for to give to thee | this land into thy possession. | And Abram said: Lord, how shall I know that I shall possess it? A voice said to | Abram: Thy seed shall be | exiled into Egypt by the space of four hundred years, and shall be there in | servitude, and after, I shall | bring them hither again in the fourth generation. Thou shalt abide here unto thy | good age, and shalt be | buried here, and go with thy fathers in peace. Sara was yet without child, and she | had a handmaid named Hagar, | an Egyptian, and she on a day said to Abram her husband: Thou seest I may bear | no child, wherefore I would | thou took Hagar my maid, and lie by her that thou might get a child which I might | keep and hold for mine. | And ten year after that Abram had dwelled in that land, he took Hagar and get her | with child, and anon as | she felt herself with child she despised her mistress Then Sara said to Abram: Thou | | | dost evil. I gave thee licence | to lie with my servant, and now sith she is conceived by thee, she hath me in | despite, God judge this between | thee and me. To whom Abram answered: Thine handmaid is in thine hands, | chastise her as it pleaseth | thee. After this Sara chastised Hagar and put her to so great affliction that she went | away; and as she went | an angel met with her in the wilderness by a well, and said: Hagar, whence comest | and whither goest thou? She | answered: I flee away from the face of my lady Sara. To whom the angel said, | return again and submit thee | by humbleness unto thy lady, and I shall multiply thy seed, and so much people | shall come of it that it | cannot be numbered for multitude. And he said furthermore: Thou hast | conceived and shalt bear | a child and shalt call him Ishmael. He shall be a fierce man, he shall be against all | men, and all men against | him. Then Hagar returned home and served her lady, and soon after this she was | delivered of Ishmael. Abram | was eighty-six years old when Ishmael was born. When Abram was ninety-nine years, | our Lord appeared to him | and said: Abram, lo! I am the Lord Almighty, walk thou before me and be perfect, and I shall | keep covenant between me | and thee and shall multiply thy seed greatly. And Abram fell down lowting low to the | earth and thanked him. | Then our Lord said I am, and my covenant I shall keep to thee, thou shalt be father of | | | much people. Thou shalt | no more be called Abram, but Abraham, for I have ordained thee father of much | people. I shall make thee to | increase most abundantly; kings and princes shall come of thee, and shall stablish | my covenant between me | and thee, and thy seed in thy generations. I shall give to thee and to thy seed after | thee the land of thy pilgrimage, | all the land of Canaan, into their possession and I shall be their God. Yet said | God to Abraham: And thou | shalt keep thy covenant to me, and thine heirs after thee in their generations, and | this shall be the covenant | that ye shall keep and thine heirs after thee. Every man-child and male shall be | circumcised in his privy member, | that it be a token between me and you. Every child masculine that shall | be born shall be circumcised | when he is eight days old, and I will that this sign shall be in your flesh. And see | that the men in your | generation be circumcised, begin at thyself and thy children. And all that dwell in thy | kindred, who of you that | shall not be circumcised in his flesh shall be cast and put out for ever from my people, | because he obeyeth not my | statute and ordinance. And thy wife Sara shall be called no more Sara but she shall | be called Sarah, and I | shall bless her, and shall give to thee a son of her, whom I shall bless also. I shall him | increase into nations, | and kings of peoples shall come of him. Abraham fell down on his face toward the earth | and laughed in his heart, | saying: May it be that a woman of ninety years may conceive and bear a child? I | beseech thee, Lord, that Ishmael | may live before thee. Our Lord said to Abraham, Sarah shall bring forth a son | | | whom thou shalt name Isaac, | and I shall keep my covenant to him for evermore, and to his heirs after him. | And I have heard they request | for Ishmael also. I shall bless him and increase, and shall multiply his seed into | much people, twelve dukes | shall come of him. I shall keep my covenant to Isaac, whom Sarah shall bring | forth the next year. When | these words were finished Abraham took Ishmael his son and all the men, small | and great, strangers and | other that were in his house, and circumcised them. Ishmael was thirteen years old | when he was circumcised, | and Abraham was ninety-nine years when he himself was circumcised. And thus | that same day he and his | son Ishmael and all the men in his house, as well as strangers, of what degree they | were, received this new | law of circumcision, whereby they were known from other people. After this on a | time, as Abraham sat beside | his house in the vale of Mamre in the heat of the day, and as he lift up his eyes, | he saw three young men | coming to him, and anon as he saw these three standing by him he ran to them and | worshipped one alone; he | saw three and worshipped but one. That betokeneth the Trinity, and prayed them | to be harboured with him, | and took water and washed their feet: and prayed them to tarry under the tree, and | he would bring bread to | them for to comfort them. And they bade him do as he had said, he went and bade | Sarah to make three ashy | cakes and sent his child for a tender fat calf, which was sodden and boiled. And he | served them with butter and | milk, and the calf, and set it tofore them. He stood by them, and when they had | eaten they demanded him: | Where is Sarah thy wife? And he said: Yonder in the tabernacle. And he said, I | shall go and come again, | and Sarah thy wife shall have a child. And she stood behind the door and heard it and | laughed, and said softly | to herself: How may it be that my lord is so old and I also that I should bear Abraham | a child? She thought it | impossible. Then said our Lord to Abraham: Why laugheth Sarah thy wife, saying in | scorn, Shall I bear a child? | but as I said to thee before, I shall return and come again, and she shall have a child | in that time. And he asked | Sarah why she smiled in scorn, and she said she smiled ne laughed not, and our | Lord said, It is not so, for | thou laughedst. When they had rested Abraham conveyed them on the way. And our | Lord said to Abraham: I | have not hid from thee what I purpose to do. The cry of Sodom and Gomorrah is | multiplied and their sin | is much grievous. I shall descend and see if the sin be so great, the stench | thereof cometh to heaven, I | shall take vengeance and destroy them. Then Abraham said: I hope, Lord, thou | wilt not destroy the just | and righteous man with the wicked sinner. I beseech thee, Lord, to spare them. Our | Lord said: If there be fifty | good and righteous men among them, I shall spare them. And Abraham said: | Good Lord, if there be found forty, | I pray thee to spare them. Our Lord said: If there be forty, I shall spare | them, and so from forty to | thirty and from thirty to twenty and from twenty to ten, and our Lord said: If | there be found ten good men | among them, I shall not destroy them. And then our Lord went from Abraham, | and he returned home again. | That same eventide came two angels into Sodom, and Lot sat at his gate, and | when he saw them he went | and worshipped them and prayed them to come and rest in his house, and abide | there and wash their feet. | And they said: Nay, we shall abide here in the street, and Lot constrained them and | brought them into his | house and made a feast to them. But ere they should go to bed, the sinful and cursed | people of the town, young | and old, beset and environed Lot's house, and called Lot, and said: Where be the men | that thou tookest into thy | house this night? Bring them forth that we may know and use them. And Lot anon | shut the door, and | stood behind and said to them: O ye my brethren, I beseech you that ye will not do ne | commit this wicked sin | on them. I have two daughters, virgins, which yet never knew man. I shall bring them | | | out to you, and use ye | them, but these men I pray you to spare, they be entered under the shadow of my | protection. They said again | to him: Go forth and fetch them; thou art entered among us as a stranger, shalt | thou rule and judge us? | We shall put thee to more affliction than them. Lot withstood them mightily; they | had almost broken up the doors, | but the men set hand to, and did help Lot, and brought him in and did shut | fast the door: and smote | them that were without with blindness that they might not see, ne find the door. | Then said the angels to Lot: | If thou have here of thy kindred, sons or daughters, all them that long to thee, | lead out of this city, we | shall destroy this place, for the cry thereof is come to our Lord, which hath sent us for | to destroy them. Lot went | unto his kinsmen and said: Arise and take your children, and go out of this city, for | our Lord shall destroy it. | And they supposed that he had raved or japed. And as soon as it was day the angels | said to Lot: Arise, and | take thy wife and thy two daughters, and go out of this town lest ye perish with | them. Yet he dissimuling, | they took him by the hand and his wife and two daughters, because that God | should spare them, and | led them out of the city. And there they said to him: Save thy soul and look not | behind thee lest thou perish | also, but save thee in the mountain. Lot said to them: I beseech thee, my Lord, | forasmuch as thy servant hath | found grace before thee, and that thou hast showed thy mercy to me, and that | peradventure I might take | harm on the hill, that I may go into the little city hereby and may be saved there. He | | | said to Lot: I have heard | thy prayers, and for thy sake I shall not subvert this town for which thou hast prayed, | hie thee and save thyself | there, for I may do nothing till thou be therein. Therefore that town is called Zoar. So | Lot went in to Zoar; and | the sun arose, and our Lord rained from heaven upon Sodom and Gomorrah sulphur | and fire, and subverted the | cities and all the dwellers of the towns about that region, and all that was there | growing and burgeoning. Lot's | wife turned her and looked towards the cities, and anon she was turned into | a statue or image of salt, | which abideth so unto this day. Abraham arose in the morning early, and looked | towards the cities, and | saw the smoke ascending from the places, like as it had been the light of a furnace. | What time our Lord subverted | these cities he remembered Abraham, and delivered Lot from the | vengeance of the cities | in which he dwelled. Then Lot ascended from Zoar and dwelled in the mountain, and | his two daughters with him. | He dreaded to abide any longer in the town, but dwelled in a cave, he and his | two daughters with him. | Then the elder daughter said to the younger: Our father is old, and there is no man left on the earth living | that may do have ado | with us after the manner of the world, come and let us make him drunk and let us sleep with | him, that we may have some | seed of him. They gave their father wine to drink that night and made him | drunk. And the elder daughter | went to him, and conceived of him, he not knowing of it. And the second | night in like wise conceived | the younger daughter, and Lot was not knowing thereof. They conceived both of | their father. The more had | a son and called him Moab; he is father of the Moabites unto this day. The younger | brought forth another son | and called him Ammon; he is father of the Ammonites unto this day. | | | Abraham departed from thence | and went southward and dwelled between Kadesh and Shur, and went a | pilgrimage to Gerar. He said | that his wife was his sister. Abimelech the king of Gerar sent for her and took her. | God came to Abimelech | in his sleep and said: Thou shalt be dead for the woman that thou hast taken, she | hath an husband. Abimelech | touched her not and said: Lord, wilt thou slay a man ignorant and rightful? She | said that she was his sister, | in the simpleness of my heart and cleanness of my hands I did this. And God | said to him: I know well that | with a simple heart thou didst it, and therefore I have kept thee from having to | do with her, now yield the | woman to her husband, and he shall pray for thee, he is a prophet and thou shalt | live. And if thou deliver | her not, thou shalt die, and all they that be in thy house. Abimelech arose up the same | night and called all his servants, | and told them all these words. All they dreaded sore. Also Abimelech called | Abraham and said to him: | What hast thou done to us, that we have trespassed to thee? Thou hast caused me | and my realm to sin greatly. | Thou hast done that thou shouldst not have done. What sawest thou for to do so? | Abraham said: I thought | that the dread of God was not in this place, and that ye would slay me for my wife; | and certainly otherwise she | is also my sister, the daughter of my father but not of my mother, and I have | wedded her. And after that | I went from the house of my father, I said to her: Wheresomever we go say thou art | my sister. Then Abimelech | took sheep and oxen and servants and maidens, and gave to Abraham, and | | | delivered to him Sarah his wife, | and said: Lo! the land is here tofore thee, wheresoever thou wilt, dwell and | abide. And he said to Sarah: | Lo ! I have given to thy brother a thousand pieces of silver, this shall be to thee | a veil of shine eyes, | and wheresomever thou go, remember that thou wert taken. Abraham prayed for | Abimelech and his meiny | and God healed him, his wife and all his servants, and they conceived. Our Lord had | closed the place of engendering | of all the house of Abimelech for Sarah the wife of Abraham. Our Lord | then visited Sarah, and | she conceived and brought forth a son in her old age, than same time that God had | promised. Abraham called his | son that she had borne, Isaac, and when he was eight days old he circumcised | him as God had commanded, | and Abraham was then an hundred years old. Then said Sarah: Who would have | supposed that I should give | suck to my child, being so old? I laughed when I heard our Lord say so, and all | they that shall hear of it | may well laugh. The child grew and was weaned from the pap, and Abraham made a | great feast at the day of his | weaning. After this, on a day when Sarah saw the son of Hagar her handmaid | play with her son Isaac, | she said to Abraham: Cast out this handmaid with her son, the son of the handmaid | shall not be heir with my | son Isaac. Abraham took this word hard and grievously for his son. Then said God to | him: Let it not be hard | to thee for thy son and handmaid, whatsomever Sarah say to thee hear her | voice, for in Isaac shall thy | seed be called. Yet shall I make the son of the handmaid grow into great people, | | | for he is of thy seed. | Abraham rose early in the morning, and took bread and a bottle of water, and laid | it on her shoulder, and gave | to her the child and let her go, which, when she was departed, erred in the | wilderness of Beersheba. And | when the water was consumed that was in the bottle, she left the child under | a tree that was there | and went thence as far as a bow shot and sat her down, and said: I shall not see my son | die, and there she wept. | Our Lord heard the voice of the child, and an anger called Hagar saying, What doest | thou, Hagar? Be not afeard, | our Lord hath heard the voice of the child from the place which he is now in. | Arise and take the child | and hold him by the hand, for I shall make him to increase into much people. God | opened her eyes and she | saw a pit of water, and anon she went and filled the bottle, and gave the child to | drink, and abode with him, | which grew and dwelled in the wilderness, and became there a young man and an | archer, and dwelled also | in the desert of Paran. And his mother took to him a wife of the land of Egypt. | That same time said Abimelech, | and Phicol the prince of his host, unto Abraham: Our Lord is with thee in all | things that thou doest. | Swear thou by the Lord that thou grieve not me, ne them that shall come after me, ne | my kindred, but after the | mercy that I have showed to thee, so do to me and to my land in which thou hast | dwelled as a stranger. And | Abraham said, I shall swear. And he blamed Abimelech for the pit of water which his | servants had taken away | by strength. Abimelech answered: I know not who hath done this thing, and | thou toldest me not thereof, | and I never heard thereof till this day. And then after this they made covenant | together, and promised each | to other to be friends together. After all these things God tempted Abraham, | | | and said to him: Abraham, | Abraham. He answered and said: I am here, and he said to him: Take thou thine only son that | thou lovest, Isaac, and go | into the land of Vision and offer him in sacrifice to me upon one of the hills that I | shall show to thee. Then | Abraham arose in the night, and made ready his ass, and took with him two young | men and Isaac his son. | And when they had hewn and gathered the wood together to make sacrifice, they went | to the place that God commanded | him. The third day after, he lift up his eyes and saw from afar the place, | and he said to his children: | Abide ye here with the ass, I and my son shall go to yonder place, and when we have | worshipped there we shall | return to you. Then he took the wood of the sacrifice and laid it on his son Isaac, | | | and he bare in his hands | fire and the sword. And as they went both together, Isaac said to his father: Father | mine. What wilt thou, my son? | said Abraham, and he said: Lo! here is fire and wood, where is the sacrifice | that shall be offered? | Abraham answered: My son, God shall provide for him a sacrifice well enough. They | went forth and came | to the place that God had ordained, and there made an altar, and laid the wood | thereon, and took Isaac | and set him on the wood on the altar, and took his sword and would have offered him | up to God. And lo! the angel | of God cried to him from heaven saying: Abraham, Abraham, which answered: I | am here, and he said to him. | Extend not thy hand upon thy child, and do nothing to him, now I know that thou | dreadest God, and hast | not spared thine only son for me. Abraham looked behind him, and saw among the | | | briars a ram fast by the horns, | which he took, and offered him in sacrifice for his son. He called that | place: The Lord seeth. | The angel called Abraham the second time saying: I have sworn by myself, saith the | Lord, because thou hast | done this thing, and hast not spared thine only son for me, I shall bless thee and | shall multiply thy seed | as the stars of heaven, and like the gravel that is on the seaside, thy seed shall possess | the gates of their enemies, | and in thy seed shall be blessed all the people of the earth, for thou obeyedst to | me. Abraham then returned | to his servants, and went into Beersheba and dwelled there. Sarah lived an | hundred and twenty-seven | years and died in the city of Arba, which is Hebron in the land of Canaan; for whom | Abraham made sorrow and | wept, and bought of the children of Heth a field, and buried her worshipfully in | a double spelunke. | Abraham was an old man, and God blessed him in all his things. He said to the eldest and upperest | servant in all his house: | I charge and conjure thee by the name of God of heaven and of earth that thou suffer not my son | Isaac to take no wife of | the daughters of Canaan amongst whom I dwell, but go into the country where | my kindred is, and take | of them a wife to my son. And the servant answered: If no woman there will come with | me into this country, shall | I bring thy son into that country from whence thou camest? Abraham said: | Beware that thou lead not | my son thither. The Lord of heaven and of earth, that took me from the house of my | father and from the place | of my nativity, hath said and sworn to me, saying: To thy seed I shall give this land. | | | He shall send his angel tofore | thee, and thou shalt take there a wife for my son. If no woman will come with | thee thou shalt not be bounden | by thine oath, but in no wise lead my son thither. His servant then swore and | promised to him that he | would so do. He took ten camels of the flock of his lord, and of all his goods bare | | | with him, and went in to | Mesopotamia unto the town of Nahor. And he made the camels to tarry without the | town by a pit side at such | time as the women be wont to come out for to draw water. And there he prayed our | Lord, saying: Lord God |of my lord Abraham, I beseech thee to help me this day, and do mercy unto my lord | Abraham. Lo! I stand here | nigh by the well of water, and the daughters of the dwellers of this town come | hither for to draw water, | therefore the maid to whom I say: Set down thy pot that I may drink, and then she set | down her pot and say: | I will give to thee drink, and to the camels, that I may understand thereby that she be | the maid that thou hast |ordained to thy servant Isaac, and thou showest thy mercy to my lord Abraham. He | had not fully finished these | words with himself, but that Rebekah, daughter of Bethuel, son of Milcah wife | of Nahor, brother of Abraham, | came out of the town, having a pot on her shoulder, which was a right fair | maid, and much beauteous | and unknown to the man. She went down to the well and filled her pot with water | and returned. The servant | of Abraham ran to her and said: I pray thee to give me a little of the water in thy | pot for to drink. Which | said: Drink, my lord, and lightly took t that man, she said: Yea, I shall go with | him. Then they let her go, | and her nurse with her, and so she departed, and they said to her: Thou art our | sister, we pray God that | thou mayst increase into a thousand thousand, and that thy seed may possess the | gates of their enemies. | Then Rebekah and her maidens ascended upon the camels, and followed the servant of | Abraham which hastily returned | unto his lord. That same time, when they were come, Isaac walked by | the way without forth | and looked up and saw the camels coming from far. Rebekah espied him and | demanded of the servant | who that he was that came in the field against them. He answered and said: That is | my lord Isaac, and anon | she took her pall or mantle and covered her. The servant anon told unto his lord Isaac | all that he had done; | which received her and led her into the tabernacle of Sarah his mother and wedded her, | and took her in to his wife, | and so much loved her, that the love attempered the sorrow that he had for his | mother. Abraham after this | wedded another wife, by whom he had divers children. Abraham gave to Isaac all | his possessions, and to | his other children he gave movable goods, and departed the sons of his | concubines from his son | Isaac whilst he yet lived. And all the days of the life of Abraham were one hundred | and seventy-five years, | and then died in good mind and age, and Isaac and Ishmael buried him by his wife Sarah | in a double spelunke. | Here beginneth the life of Isaac, with the history of Esau and of Jacob, which is read in the Church the | | | Second Sunday of Lent. | Isaac was forty years old when he wedded Rebekah and she bare him no children. Wherefore he | besought our Lord that she | might conceive and bring forth fruit. Our Lord heard his prayer that she conceived of him and | had twain sons at once, | which two, ere they were born, fought oft in their mother's belly. For which cause she | prayed God to counsel her | and to give her comfort, which appeared and said to her: Two manner people be | in thy belly, and two | manner folk shall be divided from thy womb, people shall overcome people, and the more | shall serve the less. | Thus said our Lord to her. After this, when time came that she should be delivered, there | were twain to be born. | The first that issued was rough from the head to the foot, and he was named Esau. And | forthwith followed that | other holding the plant of his brother's foot in his hand, and he was named Jacob. | Isaac the father was sixty | years old when these children were born. And after this, when they were grown to | reasonable age, Esau became | a ploughman, and a tiller of the earth, and an hunter. And Jacob was simple and | dwelled at home with his | mother. Isaac the father loved well Esau, because he ate oft of the venison that Esau | took, and Rebekah the | mother loved Jacob. Jacob on a time had made a good pottage, and Esau his | brother had been an | hunting all day and came home sore an hungred, and found Jacob having good pottage, | and prayed him to give him | some, for he was weary and much hungry. To whom Jacob said: If thou wilt sell to | me thy patrimony and heritage | I shall give thee some pottage. And Esau answered, Lo! I die for hunger, what | shall avail me mine inheritance | if I die, and what shall profit me my patrimony? I am content that thou take it | | | for this pottage. Jacob | then said: Swear that to me thou shalt never claim it, and that thou art content I shall | enjoy it, and Esau sware | it, and so sold away his patrimony, and took the pottage and ate it, and went his | way, setting nothing thereby | that he had sold his patrimony. This aforesaid is to bring in my matter of the | history that is read, for | now followeth the legend as it is read in the church. Isaac began to wax old and his eyes | failed and dimmed that | he might not clearly see. And on a time he called Esau his oldest son and said to him: Son mine, which | answered: Father, I am | here ready, to whom the father said: Behold that I wax old and know not the day that I| shall die and depart | out of this world, wherefore take shine harness, thy bow and quiver with tackles, and go | forth an hunting, and | when thou hast taken any venison, make to me thereof such manner meat as thou | knowest that I am wont | to eat, and bring it to me that I may eat it, and that my soul may bless thee ere I die. | Which all these words | Rebekah heard. And Esau went forth for to accomplish the commandment of his father, | and she said then to Jacob: | I have heard thy father say to Esau, thy brother: Bring to me of thy venison, and | make thereof meat that I | may eat, and that I may bless thee tofore our Lord ere I die. Now my son, take heed | to my counsel, and | go forth to the flock, and bring to me two the best kids that thou canst find, and I shall | make of them meat such | as thy father shall gladly eat, which when thou hast brought to him and hast eaten he | may bless thee ere he | die. To whom Jacob answered: knowest thou not that my brother is rough and hairy | and I am smooth? If | my father take me to him and taste me and feel, I dread me that he shall think that I mock | | | him, and shall give me | his curse for the blessing. The mother then said to him: In me, said she, be this curse, | my son, nevertheless hear | me; go to the flock and do that I have said to thee. He went and fetched the kids | and delivered them to his | mother, and she went and ordained them into such meat as she knew well that his | | | father loved, and took | the best clothes that Esau had, and did them on Jacob. And the skins of the kids she | did about his neck and | hands there as he was bare, and delivered to him bread and the pulment that she had | boiled. And he went to his | father and said: Father mine, and he answered: I am here; who art thou, my son? | Jacob said: I am Esau, | thy first begotten son, I have done as thou commandedst me, arise, sit and eat of the | venison of my hunting that | thy soul may bless me. Then said Isaac again to his son: How mightest thou, said he, | so soon find and take it, | my son? To whom he answered: It was the will of God that such thing as I | desired came soon to my | hand. Isaac said to him: Come hither to me, my son, that I may touch and handle thee, | that I may prove whether | thou be my son Esau or not. He came to his father, and when he had felt him, Isaac | said: The voice truly is | the voice of Jacob, but the hands be the hands of Esau. And he knew him not, for | his hands expressed the | likeness and similitude of the more brother. Therefore blessing him, he said to him: | Thou art then my son Esau? | He answered and said: I am he. Then said Isaac: Bring to me the meat of thine | hunting, my son, that my | soul may bless thee; which he offered and gave to his father, and also wine. And when | he had eaten and drunken | a good draught of the wine, he said to Jacob: Come hither to me, my son, and kiss | me; and he went to him | and kissed him. Anon as he felt the sweet savour and smell of his clothes, blessing him | he said: Lo! the sweet | odour of my son is as the odour of a field full of flowers, whom our Lord bless. God | | | give to thee of the dew | of heaven, and of the fatness of the earth, abundance of wheat, wine, and oil, and the | people serve thee, and the tribes | worship thee. Be thou lord of thy brethren, and the sons of thy mother shall | bow down and kneel to | thee. Whosomever curseth thee, be he accursed, and who that blesseth thee, with | blessings be he fulfilled. | Unnethe Isaac had fulfilled these words and Jacob gone out, when that Esau came with his meat | that he had gotten with hunting, | entered in, and offered to his father saying: Arise, father mine, and eat of the venison | that thy son hath ordained | for thee, that thy soul may bless me. Isaac said to him: Who art thou? To whom he | answered, I am thy first begotten | son Esau. Isaac then was greatly abashed and astonied, and marvelled more | than can be thought credible. | And then he was in a trance, as the master of histories saith, in which he had | knowledge that God would | that Jacob should have the blessing. And said to Esau: Who then was he that right | now a little tofore thy | coming brought to me venison? And I have eaten of all that he brought to me ere thou | camest. I have blessed him, | and he shall be blessed. When Esau heard these words of his father, he cried | with a great cry, and was | sore astonied and said: Father, I pray thee bless me also. To whom he said: Thy brother | germain is come fraudulently, |and hath received thy blessing. Then said Esau: Certainly and justly may his | name be called well Jacob, | for on another time tofore this he supplanted me of my patrimony, and now | secondly he hath undernome | from me my blessing. And yet then he said to his father: Hast thou not reserved to | | | me one blessing? Isaac | answered: I have ordained him to be thy lord, I have subdued all his brethren to his | servitude. I have stablished | him in wheat, wine and oil. And after this what shall I do to thee, my son? To whom | Esau said: Hast thou | not, father, yet one blessing? I beseech thee to bless me. Then with a great sighing and | weeping Isaac moved said | to him: In the fatness of the earth and in the dew of heaven shall be thy blessing, | thou shalt live in thy | sword, and shalt serve thy brother. Then was Esau woe-begone, and hated Jacob for | supplanting him of his | blessing that his father had blessed him with, and said in his heart: The days of | sorrow shall come to my | father, for I shall slay my brother Jacob. This was told to Rebekah, which anon | sent for Jacob her son, | and said to him: Lo! Esau thy brother threateneth to slay thee, therefore now my son | hear my voice and do as I | shall counsel. Make thee ready and go to my brother in Aran, and dwell there | with him unto the time | that his anger and fury be overpast, and his indignation ceased, and that he forget | such things that thou | hast done to him, and then after that I shall send for thee, and bring thee hither again. | And Rebekah went to Isaac | her husband and said: I am weary of my life because of the daughters of Heth, if | Jacob take to him a wife | of that kindred, I will no longer live. Isaac then called Jacob and blessed him and | commanded to him saying: | I charge thee in no wise to take a wife of the kindred of Canaan, but go and walk | into Mesopotamia of Syria, | unto the house of Bethuel, father of thy mother, and take to thee there a wife of the | | | daughters of Laban thine | uncle. God Almighty bless thee, and make thee grow and multiply, that thou mayst | be increased into tourbes | of people, and give to thee the blessings of Abraham, and to thy seed after thee, that | thou mayst possess and own | the land of thy pilgrimage which he granted to thy grandsire. When Isaac had thus | | | said, and given him leave | to go, he departed anon, and went into Mesopotamia of Syria to Laban, son of | Bethuel, brother of Rebekah | his mother. Esau seeing that his father had blessed Jacob and sent him into | Mesopotamia of Syria to | wed a wife there, and that after his blessing commanded to him saying: Take thou | no wife of the daughters | of Canaan; and he obeying his father went into Syria, proving thereby that his father | saw not gladly the daughters | of Canaan, he went to Ishmael and took him a wife beside them that he had | taken tofore, that was | Melech, daughter of Ishmael, son of Abraham. Then Jacob departed from Beersheba and | went forth on his | journey toward Aran. When he came to a certain place after going down of the sun and would rest | there all night, he | took of the stones that were there and laid under his head and slept in the same place. And there | he saw in his sleep a ladder | standing on the earth, and the upper end thereof touched heaven, and angels of | God ascending and descending | upon it, and our Lord in the midst of the ladder saying to him: I am the Lord | God of Abraham thy father, | and of Isaac; the land on which thou sleepest I shall give to thee and to thy seed, | and thy seed shall be | as dust of the earth; thou shalt spread abroad unto the east and unto the west, and | north and south, and all | the tribes of the earth shall be blessed in thee and in thy seed. And I shall be thy | keeper wheresoever thou | shalt go, and shall bring thee again into this land, and I shall not leave till I have | accomplished all that I have | said. When Jacob was awaked from his sleep and dreaming, he said: Verily | | | God is in this place, and | I wist not of it. And he said dreadingly: How terrible is this place, none other thing | is here but the house of God | and the gate of heaven. Then Jacob arose early and took the stone that lay | under his head, and raised | it for witness, pouring oil thereon, and called the name of the place Bethel which | tofore was called Luza. | And there he made a vow to our Lord, saying: If God be with me and keep me in the way | that I walk, and give me | bread to eat, and clothes to cover me, and I may return prosperously into the house | of my father, the Lord | shall be my God, and this stone that I have raised in witness, this shall be called the | house of God. And the | good of all things that thou givest to me, I shall offer to thee the tithes and tenth | part. Then Jacob went | forth into the east, and saw a pit in a field and three flocks of sheep Iying by it, for of | that pit were the beasts | watered. And the mouth thereof was shut and closed with a great stone, for the custom | was when all the sheep | were gathered, they rolled away the stone, and when they had drunken they laid the | stone again at the pit mouth. | And then he said to the shepherds: Brethren, whence are ye? Which answered: | Of Aran. Then he asking | them said: Know ye not Laban, son of Nahor? They said: We know him well. | How fareth he, said he, | is he all whole? He fareth well, said they; and lo! Rachel his daughter cometh there | with her flock. Then said | Jacob: It is yet far to even, it is yet time that the flocks be led to drink, and after be | driven to pasture, which answered: | We may not so do till all the beasts be gathered, and then we remove the | | | stone from the mouth | of the pit and water our beasts. And as they talked, Rachel came with the flock of her | father, for she kept that | time the beasts. And when Jacob saw her and knew that she was his eme's | daughter, and that they were | his eme's sheep, he removed the stone from the pit's mouth, and when her | sheep had drunken, he kissed | her, and weeping he told her that he was brother to her father and son of | Rebekah. Then she hied | her and told it to her father, which when he understood that Jacob, his sister's son | was come, he ran against | him and, embracing, kissed him, and led him into his house. And when he had | heard the cause of his | journey he said: Thou art my mouth and my flesh. And when he had been there | the space of a month, he demanded | Jacob if he would gladly serve him because he was his cousin, and what hire and reward he would | have. He had two daughters, | the more was named Leah, and the less was called Rachel, but Leah was blear-eyed, | and Rachel was fair of visage | and well-favoured, whom Jacob loved, and said: I shall serve thee for | Rachel thy younger daughter | seven years. Laban answered: It is better that I give her to thee than to a | strange man; dwell and | abide with me, and thou shalt have her. And so Jacob served him for Rachel seven | years, and him thought | it but a little while, because of the great love that he had to her. And at the end of seven | years, Jacob said to Laban: | Give to me my wife, for the time is come that I should have her. Then Laban called | all his friends and made | a feast for the wedding, and at night he brought in Leah, the more daughter, and | | | delivered to her an handmaid | named Zilpah. Then Jacob, weening that it had been Rachel, went to her as | the manner is, and when | the morning came and he saw that it was Leah, he said to Laban her father: What hast | thou done? Have I not | served thee for Rachel, why hast thou brought Leah to me? Laban answered: It is not the | | | usage ne custom of our country | to give the younger first to be wedded, but fulfil and make an end of this | complement and marriage this | week, and then shall I give to thee Rachel my daughter for other seven years | that thou shalt serve to me. | Jacob agreed gladly, and when that week was passed, he wedded Rachel to his | wife. To whom Laban her | father gave an handmaid named Bilhah. Nevertheless when the wedding of the | younger was finished, because | of the great love that he had to her, him thought that the other seven years were | but short. Our Lord saw | that he despised Leah. He let Leah conceive, and Rachel her sister abode barren, | which then Leah bare | a son and named him Reuben, saying: Our Lord God hath beholden mine humility and | meekness, now shall mine | husband love me. She conceived yet and bare another son, and said: Because | our Lord saw me despised | he hath given to me this son, and she called him Simeon. She conceived the third, | and brought forth another son, | and said: Now shall my husband be coupled to me, because I have born to him | three sons, and she called | his name Levi. She conceived the fourth son and was delivered of him, and said: Now | I shall knowledge me to | our Lord, and therefore she named him Judah, and then she ceased of bearing of children. | Rachel, seeing herself | barren, had envy to her sister and said to Jacob her husband: Make me with child or else I | shall die. To whom Jacob | was wroth, and answered: What! weenest thou that I were God and hath prived | from thee the fruit of thy | belly? Then she said, I have my servant Bilhah, go unto her, and let her conceive of | thee on my knees, that I | may have of her some sons. She gave Bilhah unto her husband to know her, which | when Jacob had known, | she conceived and bare a son. Then said Rachel: Our Lord hath heard my petition | giving to me a son, and | she named him Dan. After that Bilhah conceived again and bare another son, for whom | Rachel said: Our Lord hath | compared me to my sister and I have availed, and she named him Naphtali. Then | Leah feeling that she conceived | no more, she gave Zilpah her handmaid to her husband, which conceived | and bare a son whom Leah | named Gad. After Zilpah conceived and bare another son, for whom Leah said: | This is for my blessedness, | and certainly all generations shall say that I am blessed; therefore she called him Asher. | | | It happed that Reuben | went out in harvest time into the field, and took there a mandrake which he brought and | gave to his mother. Then | Rachel said to her sister Leah: Give me some part of the mandrake of thy son. Leah | answered: Is it not enough | to take from me my husband, but that also thou wilt have part of the mandrake of my | son? Then said Rachel: | He shall sleep with thee this night for the mandrake of thy son. At even, when Jacob | came home from the field, | Leah went against him and said to him: Thou shalt this night sleep with me, for I | have bought thee for | the meed of the mandrake of my son. He slept with her that night, and our Lord heard | her prayers. She conceived | and brought forth the fifth son, and she said: God hath rewarded me because I gave | my handmaid to my husband. | She called his name Issachar. Yet Leah conceived and bare the sixth son and | said: God hath endowed | me with a good dower, yet shall my husband abide with me because I have borne | to him six sons, and she | called his name Zebulon. After this she conceived and bare a daughter named Dinah. | Then our Lord remembered | Rachel and heard her and opened the place of conception, which conceived and | bare a son, saying: The Lord | hath taken away mine opprobrium and shame, and named his name Joseph, | saying: I pray God to send | me another. When Joseph was born, Jacob said to Laban his wives' father: Give | me leave to depart that I | may go in to my country and my land; give to me my wives and children for whom I | have served thee that I may | go hence. Thou knowest what service I have served thee. Laban said to him: I | | | have founden grace in thy sight; | I know it by experience that God hath blessed me for thee; I have ordained the | reward that I shall give | to thee. Then Jacob answered: Thou knowest how I have served thee, and how much | thy possession was in my | hands. Th colours. And when he said the contrary they brought forth all white. God | hath taken the substance | of your father and hath given it to me. And now God hath commanded me to depart, | wherefore make you ready | and let us depart hence. Then answered Rachel and Leah: Shall we have nothing | else of our father's faculty | and of the heritage of his house? Shall he repute us as strangers, and he hath | eaten and sold our goods? | Sith God hath taken the goods of our father and hath given it to us and to our | children, wherefore all that | God commanded to thee, do it. Jacob arose and set his children and his wives upon | his camels, and went his | way and took all his substance, and flocks, and all that he had gotten in | Mesopotamia and went toward | his father Isaac into the land of Canaan. That time was Laban gone to shear his | sheep, and Rachel stole | away the idols of her father. Jacob would not let Laban know of his departing, and | when he was departed with | all that longed to him of right, he came to the mount of Gilead. It was told to | Laban, the third day after, | that Jacob was fled and gone, who anon took his brethren and pursued him by the | space of seven days and | overtook him in the mount of Gilead. He saw our Lord in his sleep saying to him: | Beware that thou speak | not angrily ne hard words to Jacob. That time Jacob had set his tabernacle in the hill, | | | and when he came thither | with his brethren, he said to Jacob: Why hast thou done thus to me to take away my | daughters as prisoners taken | by sword? Why fleddest thou from me and wouldst not let me have knowledge | thereof? Thou hast not | suffered me to kiss my sons and daughters, thou hast done follily. Now may I do thee | | | harm and evil, but the God | of thy father said to me yesterday: Beware that thou speak no hard words | against Jacob. Thou desirest | to go to the house of thy father, why hast thou them, and returned into his | country. Jacob went forth | in his journey that he had taken. Angels of God met him, which when he saw, he | said: These be the castles | of God, and called that place Mahanaim. He sent messengers tofore him to Esau his | brother in the land of Seir, | in the land of Edom, and bade them say thus to Esau: This saith thy brother | Jacob: I have dwelled with | Laban unto this day, I have oxen and asses, servants both men and women. I send | now a legation unto my | lord that I may find grace in his sight. These messengers returned to Jacob and said: We | came to Esau thy brother, | and lo! he cometh for to meet thee with four hundred men. Jacob was sore afraid then, | and divided his company into | twain turmes, saying: If Esau come to that one and destroy that, that other shall | yet be saved. Then said | Jacob: O God of my father Abraham, and God of my father Isaac, O Lord that | saidst to me, return into | thy land and place of thy nativity, and saidst I shall do well to thee, I am the least | in all thy mercies, and in | thy truth that thou hast granted to thy servant, with my staff I have gone this | river of Jordan, and now I | return with two turmes. I beseech the Lord keep me from the hands of my brother | Esau, for I fear him greatly | lest he come and smite down the mother with the sons. Thou hast said that | thou shouldest do well to | me and shouldest spread my seed like unto the gravel of the sea, and that it may not | | | be numbered for multitude. | Then when he had slept that night, he ordained gifts for to send to his brother, goats | two hundred, kids twenty, | sheep two hundred, and rams twenty; forty kine and twenty bulls, twenty asses and | ten foals of them. And | he sent by his servants all these beasts; and bade them say that Jacob his servant sent to | him this present and that | he followeth after. And Jacob thought to please him with gifts. | The night following, | him thought a man wrestled with him all that night till the morning, and when he saw he | might not overcome him, | he hurted the sinew of his thigh that he halted thereof, and said to him: Let me go | and leave me, for it is | in the morning. Then Jacob answered: I shall not leave thee but if thou bless me. He | said to him: What is thy name? | he answered: Jacob. Then he said: Nay, said he, thy name shall no more be | called Jacob, but Israel, | for if thou hast been strong against God, how much more shalt thou prevail against | men? Then Jacob said | to him: What is thy name? tell me. He answered, Why demandest thou my name, | which is marvellous? And | he blessed him in the same place. Jacob called the name of that same place Penuel, | saying: I have seen our | Lord face to face, and my soul is made safe. And anon as he was past Penuel the sun | arose. He halted on his foot, | and therefore the children of Israel eat no sinews because it dried in the thigh of | Jacob. Then Jacob lifting | up his eyes saw Esau coming and four hundred men with him, and divided the sons | of Leah and of Rachel, | and of both their handmaidens, and set each handmaid and their children tofore in the | | | first place, Leah and her |sons in the second, and Rachel and Joseph all behind. And he going tofore kneeled | down to ground and, | worshipping his brother, approached him. Esau ran for to meet with his brother, | and embraced him, straining | his neck, and weeping kissed him, and he looked forth and saw the women | and their children, and said: | What been these and to whom longen they? Jacob answered: They be children | which God hath given to | me thy servant and his handmaidens, and their children approached and | kneeled down, and Leah | with her children also worshipped him, and last of all Joseph and Rachel | worshipped him. Then said | Esau: Whose been these turmes which I have met? Jacob answered: I have sent | them to thee, my lord, | unto the end that I may stand in thy grace. Esau said: I have many myself, keep these | and let them be thine. | Nay, said Jacob, I pray thee to take this gift which God hath sent me that I may find | grace in thy sight, for | meseemeth I see thy visage like the visage of God; and therefore be thou to me merciful, | and take this blessing of me. | Unnethe by compelling he taking it, said: Let us go together, I shall accompany | thee and be fellow of thy journey. | Then said Jacob: Thou knowest well, my lord, that I have young children | and tender, and sheep and | oxen, which, if I overlaboured, should die all in a day, wherefore please | it you, my lord, to go tofore, | and I shall follow as I may with my children and beasts. Esau answered: I pray thee | then let my fellows abide | and accompany thee, whatsoever need thou have. Jacob said: It is no need, I | need no more but one, | that I may stand in thy favour, my lord. And Esau returned then the same way and | |journey that he came into Seir. And Jacob came to Succoth and builded there an house, and from | thence he went in to Shalem, | the town of Shechem which is in the land of Canaan, and bought there a part of a field,| in which he fixed his tabernacles, |of the sons of Hamor father of Shechem for an hundred lambs. And there he | raised an altar, and worshipped | upon it the strongest God of Israel. It happed that Dinah, daughter of Leah,| | | went out for to see the women |of that region, which when Shechem, son of Hamor, prince of that land saw, anon loved and | ravished and slept with |her, oppressing her by strength, and was assotted on her in such wise as he went to his | father Hamor and said: |Give me this damsel in marriage that she may be my wife. Which when Jacob knew, and | heard how his daughter was |ravished, his sons then being absent in occupation of feeding of their beasts in | the field, he held it | secret till they returned. Then Hamor went to speak of this matter to Jacob, and that| time his sons came from | the field and heard what was happened and done, and were passing wroth and angry| because he had so defouled | their sister. Then said Hamor to them: Shechem my son loveth your daughter,| give her to him in marriage, |and let us ally each with other, let our daughters be given to you, and yours to | us, and dwell ye with us. | All the country is in your power, exercise and occupy it, buy and sell and take ye| it. Then said Shechem | to his father and brethren: Whatsoever ye ordain I will do, and what ye demand,| gifts or dower, I shall |gladly give it, so I may have this damsel unto my wife. Then answered the sons of Jacob | to Shechem and his father |in guile, dissimuling as they had not known the ravishment of their sister: We may | not do that ye desire, ne |give our sister to a man uncircumcised. it is a thing unlawful and great sin to u | Lord appeared again to | Jacob after that he was returned from Mesopotamia of Syria, and was come into Bethel, | and blessed him saying: | Thou shalt no more be called Jacob but Israel shall be thy name, and called him | | | Israel, and said to him: | I am God Almighty, grow and multiply, folks and peoples of nations shall come of | thee, kings shall come | of thy loins. The land that I gave to Abraham and Isaac I shall give to thee and thy seed; | and vanished from him. |He then raised a stone for a remembrance in the place where God spake to him, and | anointed it with oil, calling |the name of the place Bethel. He went thence and came in veer time unto the | land that goeth to Ephrath, |in which place Rachel travailed and began for cause of childing to die. The | midwife said to her, |Be not afeard, for thou shalt have a son. And the death drawing near, she named him | Benoni, which is as | much to say as the son of my sorrow. The father called him Benjamin, that is to say| the son of the right hand. | There Rachel died and was buried in the way toward Ephrath, that is Bethlehem.| Jacob raised a title upon |her tomb; this is the title of the monument of Rachel unto this present day. Jacob went | thence and came to Isaac |his father into Mamre the city of Arbah, that is Hebron, in which dwelled Abraham | and Isaac. And all the days |of Isaac were complete, which were an hundred and fourscore years, and he | consumed and died in good | mind, and Esau and Jacob his sons buried him. Thus endeth the history of Isaac| and his two sons Esau and Jacob. | Here beginneth the history of Joseph and his brethren, which is read the third Sunday in Lent.| Joseph when he was sixteen |years old began to keep and feed the flock with his brethren, he being yet a | | | child, and was accompanied | with the sons of Bilhah and Zilpah, wives of his father. Joseph complained on| his brethren, and accused |them to their father of the most evil sin. Israel loved Joseph above all his sons for | as much as he had gotte |son a long time. All his sons gathered them together for to comfort their father and | assuage his sorrow, but |he would take no comfort, but said: I shall descend to my son into hell for to bewail | him there. And thus, |he abiding in sorrow, the Midianites carried Joseph into Egypt, and sold him to | Potiphar, eunuch of Pharaoh, |master of his knights. Thus was Joseph led into Egypt, and Potiphar, prince of | the host of Pharaoh, an |Egyptian, bought him of the hands of Ishmaelites. Our Lord God was always with | Joseph, and he was wise, | ready, and prosperous in all manner of things. He dwelled in his lord's house and | pleased so well his lord, | that he stood in his grace that he made him upperest and above all other, and betook | him the rule and governance |of all his house, which well and wisely governed the household and all that he | had charge of. Our Lord |blessed the house of Egypt for Joseph's sake, and multiplied as well in beasts as in | fields all his substance. |Joseph was fair of visage and well favoured. After many days the lady, his master's | wife, beheld and cast her |eyes on Joseph, and said to Joseph: Come and sleep with me, which anon refused that, and would not | attend ne listen to her | words, ne would not consent to so sinful a work, and said to her: Lo! hath not my lord| delivered to me all that |he hath in his house? and he knoweth not what he hath, and there is nothing therein | | | but that it is in my power |and at my commandment except thee, which art his wife. How may I do this evil | and sin to my lord? Such | manner, or semblable words, he said daily to her, and the woman was the more| desirous and grievous to |the young man, and he always forsook and refused the sin. It happed on a day that | Joseph entered into the |chamber about certain needs that he had to do, and she caught him by his mantle, | and held it fast, and said |to him: Come and lie with me, who anon would not agree to her, but fled forth out of | the doors, and left his | mantle behind him in her hand. And when the lady saw that she was refused, and his| mantle in her hand, she cried |and called the men of the house and said to them: Lo! this Hebrew is come to my | chamber and would have |enforced and have lain by me, and when I cried, he fled out of the chamber and left for | haste his mantle that I held, |behind him, and into witness of truth she showed to her husband the mantle | when he came home, | and said: Thy servant the Hebrew, whom thou hast brought into this house, is entered into | my chamber for to have lain | by me, and when I cried, he left his mantle that I held, and fled away. When the lord| heard this, anon he gave | faith and believed his wife, and being sore wroth, set Joseph in prison where the| prisoners of the king were kept |and he was there fast set in. Our Lord God was with Joseph, and had mercy on | him, and made him in the |favour and grace of the chief keeper of the prison, in so much that he delivered to | Joseph the keeping of all |the prisoners, and what he did was done, and the chief jailor was pleased with all. Our | Lord was with him and directed all his works. |After this it fell so that two officers of the king's trespassed unto their lord, wherefore he was wroth with | them and commanded them |to the prison whereas Joseph was. That one of them was the butler, and that | other the baker; and the keeper | betook them to Joseph to keep, and he served them. After a while that they had| been in prison they both |saw on one night a dream of which they were astonied and abashed, and when | Joseph was come in to |serve them, and saw them heavy, he demanded them why they were heavier than they | were wont to be, which |answered: We have dreamed and there is none to interpret it to us. Joseph said to | them: Suppose ye that |God may not give me grace to interpret it? Tell to me what ye saw in your sleep. Then | the butler told first and |said: Methought I saw a vine had three branches, and after they had flowered the | grapes were ripe, and |then I took the cup of Pharaoh in my hand, and took the grapes and wrang out of them | wine into the cup that |I held, and presented it to Pharaoh to drink. Joseph answered: The three branches | be yet three days, after | which Pharaoh shall remember thy service and shall restore thee into thy foremost| office and gree, for to |serve him as thou wert wont to do. Then I pray thee to remember me when thou art at | thine above, and be to me | so merciful to sue unto Pharaoh that he take me out of this prison, for I was| stolen out of the land of | Hebrews and am innocently set here in prison. Then the master baker saw that he had| wisely interpreted the |butler's dream; he said: Methought that I had three baskets of meat upon my | head, and in that one basket |that was highest methought I bare all the meat of the bakehouse and birds came and | ate of it. Joseph answered: |This is the interpretation of the dream; the three baskets be three days yet to come, | after which Pharaoh shall | smite off thy head and shall hang thee on the cross, and the birds shall tear thy| flesh. And the third day |after this Pharaoh made a great feast unto his children, and remembered him, among the | meals, on the master butler |and the master baker. He restored his butler unto his office, and to serve him of | the cup, and that other was | hanged, that the truth of the interpreter was believed and proved. Notwithstanding | the master butler in | his wealth forget Joseph his interpreter. Two years after Pharaoh saw in his sleep| a dream. Him thought he |stood upon the river, from which he saw seven oxen ascend to the land which were fair and right | | | fat, and were fed in |a fat pasture; he saw other seven come out of the river, poor and lean, and were fed in | places plenteous and burgeoning. | These devoured the other that were so fat and fair. Herewith he started out | of his sleep, and after slept |again, and saw another dream. He saw seven ears of corn standing on one stalk, | full and fair of corns, |and as many other ears void and smitten with drought, which devoured the beauty of the | first seven. In the morning |Pharaoh awoke and was greatly afeard of these dreams, and sent for all | conjectors and diviners of |Egypt, and wise men; and when they were gathered he told to them his dream, and | there was none that could | interpret it. Then at last the master butler, remembering Joseph, said: I knowledge| my sin, on a time the king |being wroth with his servants, sent me and the master of the bakers into | prison, where we in one |night dreamed both prodigies of things coming. And there was a child of the Hebrews, | servant to the jailor, | to whom we told our dreams and he expounded them to us and said what should happen;| I am restored to mine office |and that other is hanged on the cross. Anon, by the king's commandment, Joseph | was taken out of prison |and shaved, bathed, and changed his clothes, and brought tofore Pharaoh, to whom be said: I | saw a dream which I |have showed unto wise men, and there is none that can tell me the interpretation thereof. | To whom Joseph answered: | God shall answer by me things prosperous to Pharaoh. Then Pharaoh told to| him his dreams, like as is tofore |written, of the seven fat oxen and seven lean, and how the lean devoured the fat, | | | and in likewise of the ears. |Joseph answered: The king's dreams are one thing which God hath showed to | Pharaoh. The seven fat |oxen and the seven ears full, betoken seven years to come of great plenty and | commodious, and the seven |lean oxen, and the seven void ears smitten with drought, betoken seven years | after them of great hunger | and scarcity. Lo! there shall come first seven years of great fertility and plenty in all | the land of Egypt, after |whom shall follow other seven years of so great sterility, barrenness, and scarcity, that | the abundance of the first shall |be all forgotten. The great hunger of these latter years shall consume all the | plenty of the first years. | The latter dream pertaineth to the same, because God would that it should be fulfilled.| Now therefore let the king | provide for a man that is wise and witty, that may command and ordain provosts| and officers in all places |of the realm, that they gather into garners and barns the fifth part of all the corn and | fruits that shall grow these |first seven plenteous years that be to come, and that all this wheat may be kept in | barns and garners in towns |and villages, that it may be made ready against the coming of the seven scarce years | that shall oppress by hunger | all Egypt, to the end that the people be not enfamined. This counsel pleased| much to Pharaoh and to | all his ministers. Then Pharaoh said to his servants: Where should we find such a, man| as this is, which is | fulfilled with the spirit of God? And then he said to Joseph: Forasmuch as God hath showed| to thee all that thou hast | spoken, trowest thou that we might find any wiser than thou or like to thee ? Thou| shalt be upperest of my |house, and to the commandment of thy mouth all people shall obey. I | only shall go tofore thee | and sit but one seat above thee. Yet said Pharaoh to Joseph: Lo! I have ordained| | | thee above and master upon | all the land of Egypt. He took a ring from his hand and gave it into his hand, and| clad him with a double stole | furred with bise; and a golden collar he put about his neck, and made him to | ascend upon his chair; |the second trumpet crying that all men should kneel tofore him, and that they should | know him upperest provost |of all the land of Egypt. Then said the king of Egypt to Joseph: I am Pharaoh, | without thy commandment shall | no man move hand nor foot in all the land of Egypt. He changed his name and| called him in the tongue |of Egypt: The saviour of the world. He gave to him a wife named Asenath, daughter | of Poti-phera, priest of Eliopoleos. | Joseph went forth then into the land of Egypt. Joseph was thirty years old when he stood in the favour and| grace of Pharaoh. And he |went round about all the region of Egypt. The plenteousness and fertility of the | seven years came, and sheaves |and shocks of corn were brought in to the barns; all the abundance of fruits was | laid in every town. There |was so great plenty of wheat that it might be compared to the gravel of the sea, and | the plenty thereof exceedeth |measure. Joseph had two sons by his wife ere the famine and hunger came, which | Asenath the priest's daughter | brought forth, of whom he called the name of the first Manasseh, saying: God hath| made me to forget all my labours, |and the house of my father hath forgotten me. He called the name of the | second son Ephraim, saying: |God hath made me to grow in the land of my poverty. | Then passed the seven years |of plenty and fertility that were in Egypt, and the seven years of scarcity and | | | hunger began to come, |which Joseph had spoken of tofore, and hunger began to wax and grow in the | universal world; also in | all the land of Egypt was hunger and scarcity. And when the people hungered| they cried to Pharaoh asking |meat, to whom he answered: Go ye to Joseph, and whatsoever he saith to | you do ye. Daily grew |and increased the hunger in all the land. Then Joseph opened the barns and garners, | and sold corn to the Egyptians, |for the hunger oppressed them sore. All provinces came into Egypt for | to buy meat to them, | and to eschew the hunger. Jacob, father unto Joseph, heard tell that corn and | victuals were sold in Egypt, | and said to his sons: Why be ye negligent? I have heard say that corn is sold in| Egypt; go ye thither and | buy for us that is necessary and behoveful, that we may live, and consume not for| need. Then the ten brethren |of Joseph descended into Egypt for to buy wheat, and Benjamin was left at home | with the father, because |whatsoever happed to the brethren in their journey. Then they entered into the | land of Egypt with other | for to buy corn. There was great famine in the land of Canaan, and Joseph was| prince in the land of Egypt, |also by his commandment wheat was sold unto the people. Then when his | brethren were come and had | adored and worshipped him, he anon knew them, and spake to them, as to| | that ye will buy ye shall have licence. And this said, each of them poured out the wheat, and every man | strangers, hard words, demanding | them saying: Whence be ye? bring with you your youngest brother that I may | know that ye be none espies | and that ye may receive this brother that I hold in prison, and then forthon what | found his money bounden | in the mouth of every sack. Then said Jacob their father: Ye have made me without | children. Joseph is gone and | lost, Simeon is bounden in prison, and Benjamin ye will take away from me, on me | come all these evils. To Reuben | answered: Slay my two sons if I bring him not again to thee; deliver him to me | in my hand, and I shall restore | him again to thee. The father said: My son shall not go with you, his brother is | dead and he is left now alone, | if any adversity should hap to him in the way that ye go into, ye shall lead my | old hairs with sorrow to hell. | In the meanwhile famine and hunger oppressed all the land greatly. And when the corn that they brought | from Egypt was consumed, | Jacob said to his sons: Return ye into Egypt and buy for us some meat, that we may live. | Judah answered: That man | said to us, under swearing of great oaths that: Ye shall not see my face ne come into | my presence but if ye bring | your youngest brother with you. Therefore if thou wilt send him with us, we shall | go together and shall buy | for us that shall be necessary, and if thou wilt not we shall not go. The man said as we | oft have said to thee, that | if we bring him not we shall not see his visage. Israel said to them: This have ye | done into my misery, that | ye told to him that ye had another brother. And they answered: The man demanded | of us by order our progeny, | if our father lived, if we had any brother. And we answered him consequently after | that he demanded, we wist | not what he would say, ne that he said bring your brother with you. Send the child | with us that we may go | forth and live, and that we ne our children die not for hunger. I shall receive thy son, | and require him of my hand. | If I lead him not thither and bring him again, I shall be guilty to thee of the sin | ever after. If there had been | no delay of this, we had been there and come again by this time. Then Israel | their father said to them: | If it be so necessary as ye say, do ye as ye will; take with you of the best fruits of this | land in your vessels, and give | ye and present to that man gifts, a little raisins, and honey, storax, stacten, | terebinthe, and dates, and | bear with you double money, and also the same money that ye found in your sacks, | lest there be any error therefore; | and take with you Benjamin, your brother. My God, that is almighty, make | him pleasant unto you, and | that ye may return in safety with this your brother and him also that he holdeth in | prison; I shall be as a man | barren therewhiles, without children. Then the brethren took the gifts and double | money and Benjamin, and went | forth into Egypt, and came and stood tofore Joseph; whom when he had seen, | and Benjamin, he commanded | to the steward of his house that he should do slay sheep and calves and make | a feast, for these brethren | shall dine with me this day. He did as he was commanded and brought the men into | his lord's house. Then | were they all afeard and said softly together: Because of the money that we had in | our sacks we be brought | in that he take us with the default, and shall by violence bring us and our asses | into servitude. Wherefore they | said to the steward of the house, in the gate of the house ere they entered, | saying: We pray thee to hear | us: the last time that we came to buy victual, which when we had bought and | departed, and were on our | him from themward, for he was moved in all his spirits and wept on his brother, | and went into his bedchamber. |After this he washed his visage and came out making good countenance and | commanded to set bread on | the board, and after that he set his brethren in order, each after their age, and ate | together, and Joseph sat | and ate with the Egyptians. For it was not lawful to the Egyptians to eat with the | Hebrews. And each of them | were well served, but Benjamin had the best part, and they ate and drank so | much that they were drunken. | Then Joseph commanded the steward of his house to fill their sacks with wheat | as much as they might receive, | and the money of the wheat put it in to every man's sack, and take my cup of | silver, and the money of | the youngest, and put that in his sack. And all this was done. And on the morn | betimes they were suffered | to depart with their asses. And when they were gone out of the town and a little | on their way, then Joseph | said to his steward: Make thee ready and ride after, and say to them: Why have ye | done evil for good? The |cup that my lord is accustomed to drink in, ye have stolen, ye might not do a worse | thing. He did as Joseph | had commanded and overtook them, and said to them all by order like as he had | charge, which answered: Why | saith your lord so, and doth to us his servants such letting? The money that we | found in our sacks we | brought again to thee from the land of Canaan, and how may it follow that we should | steal any gold or silver | from the house of thy lord? Look! at whom it be found of us all thy servants, let | him die. Which said | to them: Be it after your sentence, at whom that it ever be found he shall be my servant | and the others shall go | free and be not guilty. Then he hied and set down all their sacks, beginning at the | oldest unto the youngest, | and at last found the cup in the mouth of the sack of Benjamin. Then they all for | sorrow cut and rent their | clothes, and laded their asses again, and returned all into the town again. Then Judah | entered first with his brethren | unto Joseph and all they together fell down platte to the ground. To whom | Joseph said: Why have ye | done thus? Know not ye that there is no man like to me in the science of knowledge? | To whom Judah answered: | What shall we answer to thee, my lord; or what shall we speak or rightfully | desire? God hath found and | remembered the iniquity of us thy servants, for we be all thy servants, yea, we and | he at whom the cup was | found. Joseph answered: God forbid that I should so do, whosoever stole the cup | shall be my servant, and go | ye your way, for ye shall be free and go to your father. Then Judah approached near | him and spake with a hardy | cheer to him and said: I beseech thee my lord to hear me thy servant that I may | and that thou wilt not be | wroth to thy servant. Thou art next to Pharaoh; my lord, thou demandedst first of us | thy servants: Have ye a father | or brother? And we answered to thee, my lord: Our father is an old man and | we have a brother a young | child which was born to him in his old age, whose brother of the same mother is | dead, and he is an only | son whom the father loveth tenderly. Thou saidest to us thy servants: Bring him | hither to me that I may see. | We told to thee my lord for truth: our father may not forego the child, if he forego | | | him certainly he shall die. | And thou saidest to us, thy servants: But if ye bring him with you, ye shall no more | see my visage. Then when | we came to our father and told him all these things, and our father bade us to | return and buy more corn. | To whom we said: We may not go thither but if our youngest brother go with us, | for if he be absent we dare | not approach, ne come to the presence of the man; and he answered to us: Ye know | well that my wife brought | to me forth but two sons, that one went out, and ye said that of wild beasts had | devoured him, and yet I | heard never of him ne he appeared not. If now ye should take this my son and | any thing happened to him | in the way ye should bring my hoar bair with sorrow to hell. Therefore if I should | come home to my father | and bring not the child with me, sith the soul and health of my father dependeth of | this child, and see that | he is not come with us, he shall die and we thy servants should lead his old age with | wailing and sorrow to hell. | I myself shall be thy proper servant which have received him upon my faith and | have promised for him, saying | to my father: If I bring him not again I shall be guilty of the sin to my father | ever after. I shall abide | and continue thy servant for the child in the ministry and service of thee my lord. I may | not depart, the child being | absent, lest I be witness of the sorrow that my father shall take. Wherefore I | beseech thee to suffer this | child to go to his father and receive me into thy service. Thus said Judah, with much | more; as Josephus, Antiquitatum, | rehearseth more piteously, and saith moreover that the cause why he did | do hide the cup in Benjamin's | sack, was to know whether they loved Benjamin or hated him as they did | him, what time they sold | him to the Ishmaelites. Then this request made, Joseph might no longer | forbear, but commanded them | that stood by to withdraw them, and when all men were gone out sauf he and his | brethren, he began to say | to them weeping: I am Joseph your brother, liveth yet my father? The brethren were so | afeard that they could | not speak ne answer to him. Then he debonairly said to them; Come hither to me; and | when they came near him | he said: I am Joseph your brother that ye sold into Egypt; be ye not afeard nor | think not hard unto you that | ye sold me into these regions. God hath sent me tofore you into Egypt for | your health. It is two years | since the famine began, and yet been five years to come in which men may not ear, | sow, ne reap. God hath sent | me tofore you that ye should be reserved on the earth, and that ye may have | meat to live by. It is not by | your counsel that I was sent hither, but by the will of God, which hath ordained me | father of Pharaoh, and |lord of all his house, and prince in all the land of Egypt. Hie you, and go to my father, | and say ye to him: This | word sendeth thee thy son Joseph: God hath made me lord of the universal land of | Egypt, come to me lest thou | die, and thou shalt dwell in the land of Goshen. Thou shalt be next me, thou and | thy sons and the sons of thy | sons, and I shall feed thy sheep, thy beasts and all that thou hast in possession. | Yet rest five year to come | of famine, therefore come lest thou perish, thy house, and all that thou owest. Lo! | your eyes and the eyes | of my brother Benjamin see that my mouth speaketh these words to you. Show ye to my | father all my glory and | all that ye have seen in Egypt. Hie ye and bring him to me. This said, he embraced his | brother Benjamin about his | neck and wept upon each of them. After this they durst better speak to him. Anon it | was told and known all | about in the king's hall that Joseph's brethren were come. And Pharaoh was joyful | and glad thereof and all | his household. And Pharaoh said to Joseph that he should say to his brethren: Lade | ye your beasts and go | into the and of Canaan, and bring from thence your father and kindred, and come to me, | and I shall give you all | the goods of Egypt, that ye may eat the marrow of the earth. Command ye also that they | take carriages of this land | of Egypt, for the carriage of their children and wives, and say to them: Take your | father and come as soon | as ye may, and leave nothing behind you, for all the best things shall be yours. The | sons of Israel did as they | were commanded. To whom Joseph gave carriages after the commandment of | Pharaoh, and meat to eat | by the way. He commanded to give to every each two garments. To Benjamin he gave | three hundred pieces of | silver, with five garments of the best, and also he sent clothing to his father, adding to | them ten asses which were | laden with all riches of Egypt, and as many asses laden and bearing bread and | victual to spend by the | way. And thus he let his brethren depart from him saying: Be ye not wroth in the way. | Then they thus departing came | into the land of Canaan to their father, and showed all this to their father, and | said: Joseph thy son liveth | and he lordeth in all the land of Egypt. When Jacob heard this he awoke as a man | had been awaked suddenly | out of his sleep, yet nevertheless he believed them not, and they told to him all the order of | the matter. When he saw | the carriage and all that he had sent, his spirit revived and said: It sufficeth to me if | Joseph my son yet live, | I shall go and see him ere I die. Then Israel went forth with all that he had and came to | the pit where tofore he had | sworn to God; and slew there beasts to make sacrifices to the God of Isaac his | father. He heard God by | a vision that same night saying to him: Jacob, Jacob, to whom he answered: I am here | all ready. God said to him: | I am strongest God of thy father Isaac, dread thee not, but descend down into | Egypt. I shall make thee to | grow there into great people. I shall descend with thee thither, and I shall bring thee | again when thou returnest. | Joseph soothly shall put his hands upon thine eyes. Jacob then arose on the morn | early, and his sons took him | with their children and wives and set them on the carriages that Pharaoh had | sent to bring him and all | that he had into the land of Canaan. And so came into Egypt with all his progeny, | sons and children, etc. | These be the names of the sons of Israel that entered with him into Egypt. The first begotten Reuben | with his children four. | Simeon with his seven sons. Levi with his three sons. Judah and his sons three. Issachar and his | four sons. Zebulon and his sons | three. These were sons of Leah that Jacob gat in Mesopotamia, and Dinah his | daughter. All these sons | and daughters were thirty-three. Gad also entered with his children seven. Asher | with his children five | and of his children's children two. These were sons of Zilpah, in number sixteen. The sons | of Rachel were Joseph and | Benjamin. Joseph had two sons in the land of Egypt by his wife Asenath, | Manasseh and Ephraim. The | sons of Benjamin were ten. All these children that came of Rachel were in | number fourteen. Dan entered | with one son, and Naphtali with four sons. These were the children of | Bilhah; they were in number | seven. All the souls that were issued of his seed that entered into Egypt with | him, without the wives of | his sons, were sixty-six. The sons of Joseph that were born in Egypt twain. Summa | of all the souls of the house | of Jacob that entered into Egypt were in all seventy. Jacob sent then tofore him Judah unto | Joseph, to show to him | his coming. And he came to Joseph in Goshen, and anon Joseph ascended his chariot and went for to | meet his father, and | when he saw him, he embraced him meekly and wept. And his father received him joyously | and embraced also him. | Then said the father to Joseph: Now shall I die joyously because I have seen thy visage. | | | Then said Joseph to his | brethren and to all the house of his father: I shall go and ascend to Pharaoh and shall | say to him, that my brethren | and the house of my father that were in the land of Canaan be come to me, and be | men keeping sheep, and | can the manner well for to keep the flocks of sheep, and that they have brought with | them their beasts, and all | that ever they had. When he shall call you and ask you of what occupation ye be, ye | shall say: We be shepherds, | thy servants, from our childhood unto now, and our fathers also. This shall ye | say that ye may dwell in | the land of Goshen, for the Egyptians have spite unto herdmen of sheep. Then | Joseph entered tofore Pharaoh | and said to him: My father, my brethren, their sheep and beasts be come | from the land of Canaan, and | be in the land of Goshen. And he brought five of his brethren tofore the king, | whom he demanded of what | occupation they were of. They answered: We be keepers of sheep, thy servants, | we and our fathers, we | be come to dwell in thy land, for there is no grass for the flocks of sheep of us thy | servants, the famine is | so great in the land of Canaan. We beseech thee that thou command us thy servants to | dwell in the land of Goshen. | Then said the king to Joseph: Thy father and thy brethren be come to thee, | the land of Egypt is | at thy commandment, make thou them to dwell in the best place, and deliver to them the | land of Goshen. And | if thou know them for conning, ordain they to be masters of my beasts. After this || | Joseph brought his father | in, and made him stand tofore the king which blessed him, and was demanded of the | king how old he was. | He answered: The days of the pilgrimage of my life be an hundred and thirty years, || | small and evil, and yet I | am not come unto the days of my fathers that they have lived. And he blessed the king | and went out. Then Joseph | gave to his father and brethren possession in Egypt in the best soil of | Rameses like as Pharaoh had | commanded, and there fed them, giving to each of them victual. | In all the world was scarcity | of bread, and hunger and famine oppressed specially and most, the land of Egypt | and the land of Canaan. | Of which lands Joseph gat all the money for selling of wheat, and brought it into the | king's treasury. When all | people lacked money, all Egypt came to Joseph saying: Give us bread, why die | we to the lacking money. | To whom he answered: Bring to me your beasts and I shall give you for them victuals, | if ye have no money: which | when they brought, he gave to them victuals and food for horses, sheep, oxen and | asses, and sustained them | one year for changing of their beasts. Then came they again the second year and said: | We hide not from thee | our lord that our money is failed and also our beasts be gone, and there is nothing left | but our bodies and our land. | Why then shall we die in thy sight? And we ourselves and also our land shall be | thine, buy us into bondship | and servitude of the king, and give us seed to sow lest the earth turn into | wilderness. Then Joseph bought | all the land of Egypt, every man selling his possessions for the vehement | hunger that they had. He | subdued all unto Pharaoh, and all his people from the last terms of Egypt unto the | utterest ends of the same, | except the land longing to the priests, which was given to them by the king, to whom | were given victuals openly | out of all the barns and garners, and therefore they were not compelled to sell | their possessions. Then said | Joseph to all the peoples: Lo, now ye see and know that Pharaoh oweth and is in | possession of you and of | your land. Take to you seed and sow ye the fields that ye may have fruit. The fifth | part thereof ye shall | give to the king and four parts I promise to you to sow, and for meat to your servants | and to your children. Which | answered: Our health is in thine hand, let our lord only behold us and we shall | gladly serve the king. | From that time unto this present day, in all the land of Egypt the fifth part is paid to the | king; and it is holden for | a law, except the land longing to the priests which is free from this condition. | Then Israel dwelled in Egypt | in the land of Goshen, and was in possession thereof. He increased and multiplied | greatly, and lived therein | seventeen years. And all the years of his life were an hundred and seven and forty | years. When he understood | that the day of his death approached, he called to him his son Joseph and said to | him: If I may find so much | grace in thy sight, do to me so much mercy as thou promise and swear that thou | bury me not in Egypt, | but that I may rest with my fathers, and take and carry me from this land, and lay | me in the sepulchre of my | forefathers. To whom Joseph answered: I shall do that thou hast commanded. Then | said he: Swear to me, | and so he swore. And then Israel adored and worshipped our Lord, and turned him | towards his bed's head. | Then this done, anon after it was told to Joseph that his father was sick and feeble; | who anon took his sons | Manasseh and Ephraim and came to his father. Anon it was told to the father: Lo thy | son Joseph cometh to thee, | which then was comforted, and sat up in his bed. And Joseph entered in, and Jacob || | said: Almighty God appeared |to me in Luz which is in the land of Canaan, and he blessed me and said: I shall | increase thee and multiply | thee into tourbes of peoples, I shall give to thee this land and to thy seed after thee in | sempiternal possession, therefore thy | two sons that be born to thee in this land of Egypt tofore I came hither to | thee, shall be my sons Ephraim | and Manasseh, they shall be reputed to me as Simeon and Reuben. The | other that thou shalt get | after them shall be thine, and shall be called in the name of their brethren in their | possessions. Then he, seeing |Joseph's sons, said to him: Who be these children? Joseph answered: They be my | sons which God hath given | to me in this place. Bring them hither, said he, to me that I may bless them. | Israel's eyes were dimmed | and might not see clearly for great age. He took them to him and kissed them and | said to Joseph: I am not | defrauded from the sight of thee, and furthermore God hath showed to me thy seed. | Then when Joseph took them | from his father's lap, he worshipped him kneeling low to the earth, and set | Ephraim on his right side, | and on the left side of Israel, and Manasseh on the right side of his father Israel, | which took his right hand | and laid it on the head of Ephraim the younger brother, and his left hand on the | head of Manasseh which was | first born. Then Jacob blessed the sons of Joseph and said: God, in whose | sight walked my fathers Abraham | and Isaac, God that hath fed me from my youth unto this present day, the | angel that hath kept me | from all evil bless these children, and my name be called on them, and the | names of my fathers Abraham | and Isaac, and grow they into multitude upon earth. Then Joseph seeing that his | father set his right hand | upon the head of Ephraim the younger brother took it heavily, and took his father's | hand and would have laid | it on the head of Manasseh, and said to his father: Nay father, it is not convenient, | that ye do, this is the first | begotten son, set thy right hand on his head. Which renied that and would not do | so, but said: I wot, my son, | I wot what I do, and this son shall increase into peoples and multiply, but his | younger brother shall be | greater than he, and his seed shall grow into gentiles, and blessed them, saying that | same time: In thee shall | be blessed Israel, and shall be said: God make thee like to Ephraim and Manasseh. | And he said to Joseph his son: | Lo! now I die and God shall be with you, and shall reduce and bring you again | into the land of your fathers; | and I give to thee one part above thy brethren, which I gat and won from the hand | of the Amorite with my sword | and my bow. Then Jacob called his sons tofore him and said to them: | Gather ye altogether tofore | me, that I may show to you things that be to come, and hear your father Israel. And | there he told to each of | them his condition singularly. And when he had blessed his twelve sons he | commanded them to bury | him with his fathers in a double spelunke which is in the field of Ephron the | Hittite against Mamre in | the land of Canaan which Abraham bought. And this said he gathered to him his | feet and died. Which | anon as Joseph saw, he fell on his visage and kissed him. He commanded to his masters of | physic and medicines, which | were his servants, that they should embalm the body of his father with sweet | spices aromatic; which was | all done, and then went they sorrowing him forty days. The Egyptians wailed | him seventy days, and | when the wailing was past, Joseph did say to Pharaoh how he had sworn and | promised to bury him in | the land of Canaan. To whom Pharaoh said: Go and bury thy father like as thou hast | sworn. Which then took | his father's body and went, and with him were accompanied all the aged men of | Pharaoh's house, and the | noblest men of birth of all the land of Egypt, the house of Joseph with his brethren, | without the young children, | flocks and beasts, which they left in the land of Goshen. He had in his | fellowship chariots, carts and | horsemen, and was a great tourbe and company, and came over Jordan where | as they hallowed the exequies | by great wailing seven days long. And when they of the country saw this plaint | and sorrowing they said: | This is a great sorrow to the Egyptians. And that same place is named yet the | bewailing of Egypt. The | children of Israel did as they were commanded, and bare him into the land of | Canaan, and buried him | in the double spelunke which Abraham had bought. Then when Jacob the father was | buried, Joseph with all | his fellowship returned into Egypt. Then his brethren after the death of their father | spake together privily, and | dreading that Joseph would avenge the wrong and evil that they had done to him, | came to him and said: | Thy father commended us ere he died that we should say thus to thee; We pray thee that | thou wilt forget, and not | remember the sin and trespass of thy brethren, ne the malice that they executed in | thee. We beseech thee | that thou wilt forgive to thy father, servant of God, this wickedness. Which when | Joseph heard he wept bitterly, | and his brethren came to him kneeling low to the ground and worshipped him, | and said, We be thy servants. | To whom he answered: Be ye nothing afeard ne dread you not, ween ye that ye | may resist God's will? Ye | thought to have done to me evil, but God hath turned it into good, and hath exalted | me as ye see and know, | that he should save much people. Be ye nothing afeard, I shall feed you and your | children. And comforted them | with fair words, and spake friendly and joyously to them. And he abode and | dwelled still in Egypt with | all the house of his father, and lived an hundred and ten years, and saw the sons of | Ephraim in to the third | generation. After these things he said to his brethren: After my death, God shall visit you | and shall do you depart | from this land unto the land that he promised to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. When | that time shall come, | take my bones and lead them with you from this place, and then died. Whose body was | embalmed with sweet spices | and aromatics and laid in a chest in Egypt. Here next followeth the history | of Moses, which is read | in the Church on Mid-lent Sunday: These be the names of the children of Israel that entered | into Egypt with Jacob, and | each entered with their household and meiny. Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, | Issachar, Zebulon, Benjamin, Dan, | Naphtali, Gad, and Asher; they were all in number that entered seventy. | Joseph was tofore in Egypt. | And when he was dead and all his brethren and kindred, the children of Israel grew | and multiplied greatly, and | filled the earth. Then was there a new king upon Egypt which knew nothing of | Joseph, and said to his people: | Lo! and see the people of Israel is great, and stronger than we be, come and let | us wisely oppress them, | lest they multiply and give us battle and fight with us and drive us out of our land. | Then he ordained provosts and | masters over them to set them awork and put them to affliction of burdens. They | builded to Pharaoh two towns, | Pithom and Raamses. How much more they oppressed them, so much the | more they increased and multiplied. | The Egyptians hated the children of Israel and put them to affliction, | scorning and having envy | at them, and oppressed bitterly their life with hard and sore labours of tile and | clay, and grieved all them | in such works. The king of Egypt said to the midwives of the Hebrews, of whom | that one was called Shiphrah, | and that other Puah, and commanded: When so is that the time of birth is, and | that ye shall do your office | in helping in the birth of children, if it be a manchild slay him, if it be a maid-child | keep it and let it live. | The midwives dreaded God, and did not as the king commanded them, but reserved | and kept the men-children. | For whom the king sent and said: What is the cause that ye reserved and kept the | men-children? They answered: | There be of the Hebrews women that can the craft of midwives as well as we, and | ere we come the children | be born. God did well therefore unto the midwives, and the people grew and | were greatly comforted. | And because the midwives dreaded God they edified to them houses. Then Pharaoh | commanded to his people saying: | Whatsomever is born of males cast ye into the river, and what of women keep |  | After this was a man of the house of Levi went out and took a wife of his kindred, which conceived | ye them and let ye them live. | and brought forth a son, and he saw him elegant and fair, | and hid him three months, | and when he might no longer hide him, took a little crib of rushes and wickers and | pitched it with glue | and pitch, and put therein the child, and set it on the river, and let it drive down in the stream, and | | | the sister of the child | standing afar, considering what should fall thereof. And it happed that same time, the | daughter of king Pharaoh | descended down to the river for to wash her in the water, and her maidens went by | the brink, which then, | when she saw the little crib or fiscelle she sent one of her maidens to fetch and take it | up, which so fetched and | brought to her, and she saw therein Iying a fair child; and she having pity on it said: | This is one of the children | of the Hebrews. To whom anon spake the sister of the child: Wilt thou, said she, | that I go and call thee a | woman of the Hebrews that shall and may nourish this child? She answered: Go thy | way. The maid went and | called his mother, to whom Pharaoh's daughter said: Take this child and nourish | him to me, and I shall give | to thee thy meed and reward. The mother took her child and nourished it, and when it | was weaned and could go | she delivered it to the daughter of king Pharaoh, whom she received and | adopted instead of a son | and named him Moses, saying that I took him out of the water. And he there grew and | waxed a pretty child. | And as Josephus, Antiquitatum, saith: This daughter of Pharaoh, which was named | Termuthe, loved well Moses | and reputed him as her son by adoption, and on a day brought him to her father, | who for his beauty took | him in his arms and made much of him, and set his diadem on his head, wherein was his | idol. And Moses anon | took it, and cast it under his feet and trod on it, wherefore the king was wroth, and | demanded of the great | doctors and magicians what should fall of this child. And they kalked on his nativity | | | and said: This is he that | shall destroy thy reign and put it under foot, and shall rule and govern the Hebrews. | Wherefore the king anon | decreed that he should be put to death. But others said that Moses did it of childhood | and ought not to die therefore, | and counselled to make thereof a proof, and so they did. | They set tofore him | a platter full of coals burning, and a platter full of cherries, and bade him eat, and he took | and put the hot coals | in his mouth and burned his tongue, which letted his speech ever after; and thus he | escaped the death. Josephus | saith that when Pharaoh would have slain him, Termuthe, his daughter, plucked | him away and saved him. | Then on a time as Moses was full grown, he went to his brethren, and saw the | affliction of them and | a man of Egypt smiting one of the Hebrews, his brethren. And he looked hither and thither | and saw no man. He | smote the Egyptian and slew him and hid him in the sand. And another day he went out | and found two of the Hebrews | brawling and fighting together; then he said to him that did wrong: Why | smitest thou thy neighbour? | which answered: Who hath ordained thee prince and judge upon us? wilt thou slay | me as thou slewest that | other day an Egyptian? Moses was afeard and said to himself: How is this deed known | and made open? Pharaoh | heard hereof and sought Moses for to slay him, which then fled from his sight | and dwelled in the land | of Midian, and sat there by a pit side. The priest of Midian had seven daughters which | came thither for to draw | water, and to fill the vessels for to give drink to the flocks of the sheep of their father. | | | Then came on them the | herdmen and put them from it. Then rose Moses and defended the maidens and let | them water their sheep, | which then returned to their father Jethro. And he said to them: Why come ye now | earlier than ye were wont | to do? They said that a man of Egypt hath delivered us from the hand of the herdmen, | and also he drew water for | us and gave to the sheep drink. Where is he, said he, why left ye the man after | you' go call him that | he may eat some bread with us. Then Moses sware that he would dwell with him. And | he took Zipporah one | of his daughters and wedded her to his wife, which conceived and bare him a son whom | he called Gershom, saying: | I was a stranger in a strange land. She brought to him forth another son whom he | named Eleazar, saying: The | God of my father is my helper and hath kept me from the hand of Pharaoh. | Long time after this died | the king of Egypt, and the children of Israel, wailing, made great sorrow for the | oppression of their labour, | and cried unto God for help. Their cry came unto God of their works, and God heard | their wailing, and remembered | the promise he made with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and our Lord beheld | the children of Israel and knew them. | Moses fed the sheep of Jethro his wife's father. When he had brought the sheep into the innermost part of the | desert he came unto the | mount of God, Oreb. Our Lord appeared to him in flame of fire in the midst of a bush, | and he saw the fire in | the bush, and the bush burned not. Then said Moses, I shall go and see this great | vision why the bush burneth | not. Our Lord then beholding that he went for to see it, called him, being in | | | the bush, and said: Moses, | Moses, which answered: I am here. Then said our Lord: Approach no nearer | hitherward. Take off thy shoon | from thy feet, the place that thou standest on is holy ground. And said also: I am | God of thy fathers, God | of Abraham, and God of Isaac, and God of Jacob. Moses then hid his face, and durst | not look toward God. | To whom God said: I have seen the affliction of my people in Egypt, and I have heard | their cry of the hardness | that they suffer in their works, and I knowing the sorrow of them am descended to | deliver them from the | hand of the Egyptians, and shall lead them from this land into a good land and spacious, | into a land that floweth | milk and honey, unto the places of Canaanites, Hittites, Amorites, Perizzites, Hivites and | Jebusites. The cry of the | children of Israel is come to me, I have seen their affliction, how they be oppressed | of the Egyptians. But come | to me and I shall send thee unto Pharaoh that thou shalt lead the children of Israel | out of Egypt. Then Moses | said to him: Who am I that shall go to Pharaoh and lead the children out of Egypt? | To whom God said: I shall | be with thee, and this shall be the sign that I send thee. When thou shalt have led | out my people of Egypt, | thou shalt offer to God upon this hill. Moses said unto God: Lo! if I go to the | children of Israel and say | to them: God of your fathers hath sent me to you; if they say What is his name? what | shall I say? Our Lord | said to Moses: Ego sum qui sum. I am that I am. He said: Thus shalt thou say to the | children of Israel: He that is, | sent me to you, and yet shalt thou say to them: The Lord God of your fathers, | God of Abraham, God of | Isaac, and God of Jacob, hath appeared to me saying: This is my name for evermore, | and this is my memorial | from generation to generation. Go and gather together the seniors and aged men of | Israel, and say to them: | The Lord God of your fathers hath appeared to me, God of Abraham, God of Isaac, | and God of Jacob, saying: | Visiting I have visited you, and have seen all that is fallen in Egypt, and I shall lead | you out of the affliction |of Egypt into the land of Canaan, Ethei, etc, unto the Iand flowing milk and | honey, and they shall hear | thy voice. Thou shalt go and take with thee the seniors of Israel to the king of Egypt, | and shalt say to him: The | Lord God of the Hebrews hath called us; we shall go the journey of three days in | wilderness that we may | offer to our Lord God. But I know well that the king of Egypt shall not suffer you to | go but by strong hand. | I shall stretch out my hand and shall smite Egypt in all my marvels that I shall do amid | among them. After that | he shall let you go. I shall then give my grace to this people tofore the Egyptians, and | when ye shall go out ye shall | not depart void, nor with nought, but every woman shall borrow of her neighbour, | and of her hostess, vessels | of silver and of gold, and clothes, and them shall ye lay on your sons, and on your | daughters, and ye shall | rob Egypt. Then Moses answered and said: They shall not believe me ne hear | my voice, but shall say: | God hath not appeared to thee. God said then to him: What is that thou holdest in thine | hand? He answered: A rod. | Our Lord said: Cast it on the ground. He threw it down and it turned into a serpent, | whereof Moses was afeard | and would have fled. Our Lord said to him: Put forth thy hand and hold him by | the tail; he stretched forth | hie hand and held him, and it turned again into a rod. To this, that they believe thee, | that I have appeared to thee. | And yet our Lord said to him: Put thy hand into thy bosom, which, when he hath | put in, and drawn out again, | it was like a leper's hand. Our Lord bade him to withdraw it into his bosom again, | and he drew it out and | it was then like that other flesh. If they hear not thee, and believe by the first sign and | token, they shall believe | thee by the second. If they believe none of the two ne hear thy voice, then take | water of the river and pour | on the dry ground, and whatsoever thou takest and drawest shall turn into | blood. Then Moses said: | I pray the Lord send some other, for I am not eloquent, but have a letting in my | | | speech. Our Lord said to him: | Who made the mouth of a man, or who hath made a man dumb or deaf, seeing or | blind, not I? Go, therefore, | I shall be in thy mouth and shall teach thee what thou shalt say. Then said Moses: I | beseech thee Lord, said he, |send some other whom thou wilt. Our Lord was wroth on Moses and said: Aaron thy | brother deacon, I know | that he is eloquent, lo! he shall come and meet with thee, and seeing thee he shall be | glad in his heart. Speak | thou to him and put my words in his mouth, and I shall be in thy mouth and in his | mouth, and I shall show | to you what ye ought to do, and he shall speak for the people, and shall be thy mouth, | and thou shalt be in such | things as pertain to God. Take with thee this rod in thine hard, by which thou shalt do | signs and marvels. Then | Moses went to Jethro his wife's father, and said to him, I shall go and return to my | brethren into Egypt, and see | if they yet live. To whom Jethro said: Go in God's name and place. Then said our | Lord to Moses: Go and return | into Egypt, all they be now dead that sought for to slay thee. Then Moses took | his wife and his sons | and set them upon an ass and returned in to Egypt, bearing the rod of God in his hand. | Then our Lord said to Aaron: | Go against Moses and meet with him in desert; which went for to meet with | him unto the mount of | God, and there kissed him. And Moses told unto Aaron all that our Lord had said to | him for which he sent | him, and all the tokens and signs that he bade him do. They came both together and | gathered and assembled all | the seniors and aged men of the children of Israel. And Aaron told to them all that | | | God had said to Moses, | and made the signs and tokens tofore the people and the people believed it. They heard | well that our Lord had | visited the children of Israel, and that he had beholden the affliction of them, wherefore | they fell down low to the | ground and worshipped our Lord. After this Moses and Aaron went unto Pharaoh and | said: This saith the Lord | God of Israel: Suffer my people to depart that they may sacrifice to me in desert. Then | said Pharaoh: Who is | that Lord that I may hear his voice and leave Israel? I know not that Lord, nor I will not | leave Israel. They said to him: | God of the Hebrews hath called us that we go the journey of three days in the | wilderness and sacrifice unto | our Lord God, lest peradventure pestilence or war fall to us. The king of | Egypt said to them: Why solicit | ye, Moses and Aaron, the people from their works and labour? Go ye unto | your work. Pharaoh also said: | The people is much, see how they grow and multiply, and yet much more shall | do if they rested from | their labour. Therefore he commanded the same day to the prefects and masters of | their works saying: In no | wise give no more chaff to the people for to make loam and clay, but let them go and | gather stubble, and make | them to do as much labour as they did tofore, and lessen it nothing. They do now but | cry: Let us go and make | sacrifice to our God, let them be oppressed by labour and exercised that they attend | not to leasings. Then the | prefects and masters of their work said to them that Pharaoh had commanded to give | them no chaff, but they | should go and gather such as they might find, and that their work should not therefore | be minished. Then the children | were disperpled for to gather chaff, and their masters awaited on them and | bade them: Make an end | of your work as ye were wont to do when that chaff was delivered to you. And thus | | | they were put to more affliction, | and would make them to make as many tiles as they The did tofore. Then the | upperest of the children | of Israel came to Pharaoh and complained saying: Why puttest thou thy servants to | such affliction? He said | to them: Ye be so idle that ye say ye will go and sacrifice to your God; ye shall have | no chaff given to you, | yet ye shall work your customable work and gather your chaff also. | Then the eldest and the upperest | among the Hebrews went to Moses and Aaron and said: What have ye done ? | ye have so done that ye | have made our odour to stink in the sight of Pharaoh, and have encouraged him to slay | us. Then Moses counselled | with our Lord how he should do, and said: Lord, why hast thou sent me | hither? For, sith I have spoken | to Pharaoh in thy name, he hath put thy people to more affliction than they | tofore, and thou hast | not delivered them. Our Lord said to Moses: Now thou shalt see what I shall do to | Pharaoh. By strong hand | he shall let you go, and in a boistous he shall cast you from his land. | Yet said our Lord to Moses: | I am the Lord God that appeared to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob in my might, and | my name is Adonai, I | showed to them not that. I promised and made covenant with them that I should | give to them the land of | Canaan in which they dwelled. I now have heard the wailing and the tribulations that the | Egyptians oppress them with, | for which I shall deliver and bring them from the servitude of the Egyptians. | Moses told all these things | to the children of Israel, and they believed him not for the anguish of their spirits that | | | they were in, and hard labour. | Then said our Lord to Moses: Go and enter in to Pharaoh and bid him deliver | my people of Israel out of his | land. Moses answered: How should Pharaoh hear me when the children of | Israel believe me not? Then | our Lord said to Moses and Aaron that they both should go to Pharaoh and give him | in commandment to let the | children of Israel to depart. And he said to Moses: Lo! I have ordained thee to be | God of Pharaoh, and Aaron | thy brother shall be thy prophet. Thou shalt say to him all that I say to thee, and | he shall say to Pharaoh | that he suffer the children of Israel to depart from his land. But I shall enhard his | heart, and shall multiply | my signs and tokens in the land of Egypt, and he shall not hear ne believe you. And | I shall lead the children | of Israel my people. And shall show mine hand, and such wonders on Egypt, that | Egyptians shall know that | I am the Lord. Moses and Aaron did as our Lord commanded them. Moses was | eighty years old when he | came and stood tofore Pharaoh, and Aaron eighty-three years when they spake | to Pharaoh. Then when they were | tofore Pharaoh, Aaron cast the rod down tofore Pharaoh, and anon the rod | turned into a serpent. Then | Pharaoh called his magicians and jugglers and bade them do the same. And | they made their witchcraft | and invocations and cast down their rods, which turned in likewise into serpents, | but the rod of Aaron devoured | their rods. Yet was the heart of Pharaoh hard and so indurate that he would not | do as God bade. Then said | our Lord to Moses: The heart of Pharaoh is grieved and will not deliver my people. Go | | | to him to-morn in the | morning and he shall come out, and thou halt stand when he cometh on the bank of the | river, and take in thine hand | the rod that was turned into the serpent, and say to him: The Lord God of the | Hebrews sendeth me to thee | saying: Deliver my people that they may offer and make sacrifice to me in desert, | yet thou hast no will to | hear me. Therefore our Lord said: In this shalt thou know that I am the Lord: Lo! I | shall smite with the rod that | is in my hand the water of the flood, and it shall turn into blood; the fishes that be | in the water shall die, and | the Egyptians shall be put to affliction drinking of it. Then said our Lord to Moses: | Say thou to Aaron: Take | this rod and stretch thine hand upon all the waters of Egypt, upon the floods, rivers, | ponds, and upon all the | lakes where any water is, in that they turn to blood, that it may be a vengeance in all the | land of Egypt, as well in | treen vessels as in vessels of earth and stone. Moses and Aaron did as God had | commanded them, and smote | the flood with the rod tofore Pharaoh and his servants, which turned into | blood, and the fishes that | were in the river died, and the water was corrupt. And the Egyptians might not drink | the water, and all the water | of Egypt was turned into blood. And in likewise did the enchanters with their | witchcraft, and the heart | of Pharaoh was so indurate that he would not let the people depart as our Lord had | commanded, but he returned | home for this time. The Egyptians went and dolven pits for water all about by | the river, and they found | no water to drink but all was blood. And this plague endured seven days, and | | | whatsomever water the children | of Israel took in this while was fair and good water. This was the first plague | and vengeance. The second was | that God sent frogs so many, that all the land was full, the rivers, the houses, | chambers, beds, that they | were woebegone, and these frogs entered into their meat. so many that they covered | all the land of Egypt. Then | Pharaoh prayed Moses and Aaron that God would take away these frogs, and that | he would go suffer the people | to do sacrifice; and then Moses asked when he would deliver them if the frogs | were voided, and Pharaoh said: | In the morn. And then Moses prayed, and they voided all. And when Pharaoh | saw that he was quit of them, | he kept not his promise and would not let them depart. The third vengeance that | God sent to them was a great | multitude of hungry horse-flies, as many as the dust of the earth, which were on | men, and bit them and beasts. | And then enchanters said then to Pharaoh: This is the finger of God. Yet would | not Pharaoh let them depart. | The fourth vengeance was that God sent all manner kind of flies and lice in such | wise that the universal land | of Egypt was full of all manner flies and lice, but in the land of Goshen were | none. Yet was he so indurate | that he would not let them go, but would that they should make their sacrifice to | God in that land. But Moses | would not so, but would go three days' journey in desert, and sacrifice to God | there. Pharaoh said: I | will that ye go into desert, but not far, and come soon again, and pray ye for me. And | Moses prayed for him to | our Lord, and the flies voided that there was not one left. And when they were gone | Pharaoh would not keep | his promise. Then the fifth plague was that God showed his hand upon the fields | and upon the horses' asses, | camels, sheep and oxen, and was a great pestilence on all the beasts. And God | showed a wonder miracle | between the possessions of the Egyptians and the possessions of his people of | | | Israel, for of the beasts of | the children of Israel there was not one that perished. Yet was Pharaoh so hard-hearted | that he would not suffer | the people to depart. The sixth plague was that Moses took ashes out of the | chimney and cast on the land. | And anon all the people of Egypt, as well men as beasts were full of botches, | boils, and blains and wounds, | and swellings in their bladders, in such wise that the enchanters could ne | might not stand for pain tofore | Pharaoh. Yet would not Pharaoh hear them, nor do as God had commanded. The | seventh plague was a hail | so great that there was never none like tofore, and thunder and fire that it destroyed | all the grass and herbs | of Egypt and smote down all that was in the field, men and beasts. But in the land of | Goshen was none heard, ne | harm done. Yet would not Pharaoh deliver them. The eighth our Lord sent to them | locusts, which is a manner | great fly, called in some place an adder-bolte, which bit them and ate up all the | corn and herbs that was | left, in such wise that the people came to Pharaoh and desired him to deliver, | saying that the land perished. | Then Pharaoh gave to the men licence to go and make their sacrifice, and leave | their wives and children | there still, till they came again, but Moses and Aaron said they must go all, wherefore | he would not let them depart. | The ninth plague and vengeance was that God sent so great darkness upon all | the land of Egypt that the |pleasing to him, and command ye to your sons that they do righteous ness and alms, that | that ye do that may be |darkness was so great and horrible that they were palpable, and it endured three | | | days and three nights. | Wheresoever the children of Israel went it was light. Then Pharaoh called Moses and Aaron | and said to them: Go ye | and make your sacrifice unto your Lord God, and let your sheep and beasts only abide. To whom Moses | said: We shall take with |us such hosties and sacrifices as we shall offer to our Lord God. All our flocks and | beasts shall go with us, | there shall not remain as much as a nail that shall be necessary in the honour of our | Lord God, for we know | not what we shall offer till we come to the place. Pharaoh was so indurate and hard-hearted | that he would not let | them go, and bade Moses that he should no more come in his sight. For when | thou comest thou shalt die. | Moses answered: Be it as thou hast said: I shall no more come to thy presence. | And then our Lord said to Moses: | There resteth now but one plague and vengeance, and after that he shall let you | go. But first say to all the | people that every man borrow of his friend, and woman of her neighbour, vessels of | gold and silver, and clothes; | our Lord shall give to his people grace and favour to borrow of the Egyptians; and | then gave to them a commandment | how they should depart. And our Lord said to Moses: At midnight I shall | enter into Egypt and the first | begotten child and heir of all Egypt shall die, from the first begotten son of | Pharaoh that sitteth in his | throne unto the first begotten son of the handmaid that sitteth at the mill, and all the | first-begotten of the beasts. | There shall be a great cry and clamour in all the land of Egypt in such wise that | there was never none like, |ne never shall be after, and among all the children there shall not an hound be hurt, | | | ne woman, ne beast, whereby | ye shall know by what miracle God divideth the Egyptian and Israel. Moses | and Aaron showed all these | signs and plagues tofore Pharaoh, and his heart was so indurate that he would | not let them depart. Then when | Moses had said to the children how they should do, they departed, and ate | their paschal lamb, and | all other ceremonies as be expressed in the Bible, for a law to endure ever among | them, which the children | of Israel obeyed and accomplished, it was so that at midnight our Lord smote | and slew every first-begotten | son throughout all the land of Egypt, beginning at the first son and heir of Pharaoh | unto the son of the caitiff | that lay in prison, and also the first begotten of the beasts. Pharaoh arose in the night | and all his servants and | all Egypt, and there was a great clamour and sorrowful noise and cry, for there was not a | house in all Egypt but there | lay therein one that was dead. Then Pharaoh did do call Moses and Aaron in the | night, and said: Arise ye | and go your way from my people, ye and the children of Israel, as ye say ye will, | take your sheep and beasts | with you like as ye desired, and at your departing bless ye me. The Egyptians | constrained the children to | depart and go their way hastily, saying: We all shall die. The children of Israel | took their meal, and put | it on their shoulders as they were commanded, and borrowed vessels of silver and of | gold, and much clothing. | Our Lord gave to them such favour tofore the Egyptians that the Egyptians lent to | them all that they desired, | and they spoiled and robbed Egypt. And so the children of Israel departed, nigh the | | | number of six hundred thousand | footmen, besides women and children which were innumerable, and an huge great | multitude of beasts of divers | kinds. The time that the children of Israel had dwelt in Egypt was four hundred | years. And so they departed | out of Egypt, and went not the right way by the Philistines, but our Lord led them | by the way of desert which | is by the Red Sea. And the children descended out of Egypt armed. Moses took | |with him the bones of Joseph for he charged them so to do when he died. They went in the extreme ends | of the wilderness, and | our Lord went tofore them by day in a column of a cloud, and by night in a column of fire and | was their leader and duke; | the pillar of the cloud failed never by day, nor the pillar of fire by night tofore the | people. Our Lord said to Moses, | I shall make his heart so hard that he shall follow and pursue you, and I shall | | | be glorified in Pharaoh, | and in all his host, the Egyptians shall know that I am Lord. And anon it was | told to Pharaoh that the | children of Israel fled, and anon his heart was changed, and also the heart of his servants, | and said: What shall we | do, shall we suffer the children to depart and no more to serve us? Forthwith he took | his chariot and all his people | with him. He took with him six hundred chosen chariots, and all the chariots | and wains of Egypt, and the | dukes of all his hosts and he pursued the children of Israel and followed them in | great pride. And when he | approached, that the children of Israel saw him come, they were sore afraid and cried | to our Lord God, and said | to Moses: Was there not sepulchre enough for us in Egypt but that we must now | die in wilderness? Said | we not to thee: Go from us and let us serve the Egyptians: It had been much better for | us to have served the Egyptians | than to die here in wilderness. And Moses said to the people: Be ye not | afraid, stand and see ye | the great wonders that our Lord shall do for you this day. The Egyptians that ye now see, | ye shall never see them | after this day. God shall fight for you, and be ye still. Our Lord said then to Moses: What | criest thou to me? | Say to the children of Israel that they go forth. Take thou and raise the rod, and stretch thy | hand The upon the sea, | and depart it that the children of History Israel may go dry through the middle of it. I of | Moses shall so indurate | the heart of Pharaoh that he shall follow you, and all the Egyptians, and I shall be | glorified in Pharaoh, and | in all his host, his carts and horsemen. And the Egyptians shall know that I am Lord | | | when I shall so be glorified. | The angel of God went tofore the castles of Israel, and another came after in the | cloud which stood between | them of Egypt and the children of Israel. And the cloud was dark that the host | of Israel might not come | to them of all the night. Then Moses stretched his hand upon the sea, and there came | a wind blowing in such | wise that it waxed dry, and the children of Israel went in through the midst of the Red | Sea all dry foot; for the | water stood up as a wall on the right side and on the left side. The Egyptians then | pursuing them followed and | entered after them, and all the carts, chariots and horsemen, through the middle of | the sea. And then our | Lord beheld that the children of Israel were passed over and were on the dry land, on | that other side. Anon turned | the water on them, and the wheels on their carts turned up so down, and drowned | all the host of Pharaoh, | and sank down into the deep of the sea. Then said the Egyptians: Let us flee Israel; the | Lord fighteth for them against us. | And our Lord said to Moses: Stretch out shine hand upon the sea, and let the | water return upon the Egyptians, | and upon their chariots and horsemen. And so Moses stretched out his hand and | the sea returned in to his |first place. And then the Egyptians would have fled, but the water came and | overflowed them in the midst | of the flood, and it covered the chariots and horsemen, and all the host of | Pharaoh, and there was not | one of them. And the children of Israel had passed through the middle of the | dry sea and came land. | | Thus delivered our Lord the children of Israel from the hand of the Egyptians, and they saw the Egyptians | | dead upon the brinks | of the sea. And the people then dreaded our Lord and believed in him, and to Moses his | servant. Then Moses and | the children of Israel sang this song to our Lord: Cantemus domino magnificatus est, | Let us sing to our Lord, | he is magnified, he hath overthrown the horsemen and carmen in the sea. And | Miriam the sister of Aaron, | a prophetess, took a timpane in her hand, and all the women followed her with | timpanes and chords, and | she went tofore singing Cantemus domino. Then Moses brought the children of | Israel from the sea into | the desert of Sur, and walked with them three days and three nights and found no | water, and came into Marah, | and the waters there were so bitter that they might not drink thereof. Then the | people grudged against | Moses, saying: What shall we drink? And he cried unto our Lord which showed to him | a tree which he took and | put into the waters, and anon they were turned into sweetness. There our Lord | ordained commandments and judgments, | and there he tempted him saying: If thou hearest the voice of thy | Lord God, and that thou do | is rightful before him, and obeyest his commandments, and keep his precepts, I | shall not bring none of the | languors ne sorrows upon thee that I did in Egypt. I am Lord thy saviour. Then the | children of Israel came in to | Elim, where as were twelve fountains of water, and seventy palm trees, and they | abode by the waters. Then | from thence went all the multitude of the children of Israel into the desert of Sin, | which is between Elim and | Sinai, and grudged against Moses and Aaron in that wilderness, and said: Would | | | God we had dwelled still | in Egypt, whereas we sat and had plenty of bread and flesh; why have ye brought us | into the desert for to slay | all this multitude by hunger? Our Lord said then to Moses: I shall rain read to you | from heaven, let the people | go out and gather every day that I may prove them whether they walk in my law or | not; the sixth day let them | gather double as much as they gathered in one day of the other. Then said Moses | and Aaron to all the children | of Israel: At even ye shall know that God hath brought you from the land of Egypt, | and to-morn ye shall see |the glory of our Lord. I have well heard your murmur against our Lord, what have ye | mused against us? What | be we? and yet said Moses; Our Lord shall give you at even flesh for to eat and to-morn | bread unto your fill, for as | much as ye have murmured against him; what be we? Your murmur is not | against us but against | our Lord. As Aaron spake to all the company of the children of Israel they beheld | towards the wilderness, and | our Lord spake to Moses in a cloud and said: I have heard the grudgings of the | children of Israel; say to | them: At even ye shall eat flesh and to-morn ye shall be filled with bread, and ye shall | know that I am your Lord | God. And when the even was come there came so many curlews that it covered all | their lodgings, and on | the morn there lay like dew all about in their circuit. Which when they saw and came | for to gather, it was small | and white like to coriander. And they wondered on it and said: Mahun, that is as | much to say, what is this? | To whom Moses said: This is the bread that God hath sent you to eat, and God | commandeth that every man | should gather as much for every head as is the measure of gomor, and let nothing | be left till on the morn. | And the sixth day gather ye double so much, that is two measures of gomor, and | keep that one measure for | the Sabbath, which God hath sanctified and commanded you to hallow it. Yet some of | them brake God's commandment, | and gathered more than they ate and kept it till on the morn, and then it | began to putrify and be full | of worms. And that they kept for the Sabbath day was good and putrified not. | And thus our Lord fed the | children of Israel forty years in the desert. And it was called Manna. Moses took one | gomor thereof and put it | in the tabernacle for to be kept for a perpetual memory and remembrance. | Then went they forth all | the multitude of the children of Israel, in the desert of Sin in their mansions and came to | Rephidim, where as they | had no water. Then all grudging they said to Moses, Give us water for to drink. | To whom Moses answered: | What grudge ye against me, why tempt ye our Lord? The people thirsted sore for | lack and penury of water | saying: Why hast thou brought us out of Egypt for to slay us and our children and | beasts? Then Moses cried | unto our Lord saying: What shall I do to this people? I trow within a while they shall | stone me to death. Then our | Lord said to Moses: Go before the people and take with thee the older men and | seniors of Israel, and take | the rod that thou smotest with the flood in thy hand, and I shall stand tofore upon the | stone of Oreb, and smite | thou the stone with the rod and the waters shall come out thereof that the people may | drink. Moses did so tofore | the seniors of Israel and called that place Temptation, because of the grudge of | the children of Israel, and | said: Is God with us or not? Then came Amalek and fought against the children of | Israel in Rephidim. Moses | said then to Joshua: Choose to thee men, and go out and fight against Amalek to-morrow. | I shall stand on the top | of the hill having the rod of God in my hand: Joshua did as Moses | commanded him, and fought | against Amalek. Moses, Aaron. and Hur, ascended into the hill, and when Moses | held up his hands, Israel | won and overcame their enemies, and when he laid them down then Amalek had | the better. The hands | of Moses were heavy; Aaron and Hur took then a stone and put it under them, and they | sustained his hands on | either side, and so his hands were not weary until the going down of the sun. And so | | | Joshua made Amalek to | flee, and his people, by strength of his sword. Our Lord said to Moses: Write this for a | remembrance in a book | and deliver it to the ears of Joshua; I shall destroy and put away the memory of | Amalek under heaven. | Moses then edified an altar unto our Lord, and called there on the name of our Lord, | saying: The Lord is mine | exaltation, for this is the hand only of God, and the battle and God shall be against | Amalek from generation to generation. | When Jethro the priest of Midian, which was cousin of Moses, heard say what our Lord had done to Moses | and to the children of | Israel his people, he took Zipporah the wife of Moses, and his two sons, Gershom and | Eleazar and came with them | to him into desert, whom Moses received with worship and kissed him. And when | they were together Moses | told him all what our Lord had done to Pharaoh and to the Egyptians for Israel, and | all the labour that they endured | and how our Lord had delivered them. Jethro was glad for all these things, that | God had so saved them | from the hands of the Egyptians, and said: Blessed be the Lord that hath delivered you | from the hand of the Egyptians | and of Pharaoh, and hath saved his people; now I know that he is a great | Lord above all gods, because | they did so proudly against them. And Jethro offered sacrifices and offerings | to our Lord. Aaron and all | the seniors of Israel came and eat with him tofore our Lord. The next day Moses sat | and judged and deemed | the people from morning unto evening, which, when his cousin saw, he said to him: | What doest thou? Why sittest | thou alone and all the people tarry from the morning until evening? To whom | | | Moses answered: The people | came to me demanding sentence and the doom of God; when there is any debate | or difference among them they | come to me to judge them, and to show to them the precepts and the laws of | God. Then said Jethro: Thou | dost not well nor wisely, for by folly consumest thy self, and the people with | thee; thou thy might, thou | mayst not alone sustain it, but hear me and do there after, and our Lord shall be | with thee. Be thou unto | the people in those things that appertain to God, that thou tell to them what they | should do, and the ceremonies | and rites to worship God, and the way by which they should go, and what work | they shall do. Provide of | all people wise men and dreading God, in whom is truth, and them that hate | avarice and covetise, and | ordain of them tribunes and centurions and deans that may in all times judge the | people. And if there be of | a great charge and weight, let it be referred to thee, and let them judge the small | things; it shall be the easier | to thee to bear the charge when it is so parted. If thou do so, thou shalt fulfil the | commandment of God, and sustain | his precepts, and the people shall go home to their places in peace. Which | things when Moses had | heard and understood, he did all that he had counselled him, and chose out the | strongest and wisest people | of all Israel and ordained them princes of the people, tribunes, centurions, | quinquagenaries, and deans, which | at all times should judge and deem the people. And all the great and | weighty matters they referred | to him, deeming and judging the small causes. And then his cousin departed | and went into his country. | The third month after the children of Israel departed out of Egypt, that same day they came into the wilderness | of Sinai, and there | about the region of the mount they fixed their tents. Moses ascended into the hill unto | | | God. God called him on | the hill and said: This shalt thou say to the house of Jacob and to the children of | Israel. Ye yourselves have | seen what I have done to the Egyptians, and how I have borne you on the wings of | eagles and have taken you | to me. If ye therefore hear my voice and keep my covenant, ye shall be to me in the | reign of priesthood and holy | people. These be the words that thou shalt say to the children of Israel. Moses came | down and gathered all the | most of birth, and expounded in them all the words that our Lord had commanded | him. All the people answered: | All that ever our Lord hath said we shall do. When Moses had showed the | people the words of our Lord, | our Lord said to him: Now I shall come to thee in a cloud that the people may | hear me speaking to thee, | that they believe thee ever after. Moses went and told this to the people, and our | Lord bade them to sanctify |the people this day and to-morrow, and let them wash their clothes, and be ready | the third day. The third |day our Lord shall descend tofore all the people on the mount of Sinai. And ordain | to the people the marks | and terms in the circuit. And say to them: Beware that ye ascend not on the hill ne touch | the ends of it. Whosoever | toucheth the hill shall die by death, there shall no hand touch him, but with stones he | shall be oppressed and with | casting of them on him he shall be tolben; whether it be man or beast, he shall not | live. When thou hearest | the trump blown then ascend to the hill. Moses went down to the people and sanctified | and hallowed them, and | when they had washen their clothes he said to them: Be ye ready at the third day and | | | approach not your wives. |When the third day came, and the morning waxed clear, they heard thunder and | lightening and saw a great | cloud cover the mount, and the cry of the trump was so shrill that the people were | sore afraid. When Moses | had brought them forth unto the root of the hill they stood there. All the mount of | Sinai smoked, for so much | as our Lord descended on it in fire, and the smoke ascended from the hill as it had | been from a furnace. The | The mount was terrible and dreadful, and the sound of the trump grew a little more | and continued longer. Moses | spake and our Lord answered him. Our Lord descended upon the top of the | mount of Sinai, even on the | top of it, and called Moses to him, which when he came said to him: Go down and | charge the people that they | come not to the terms of the hill for to see the Lord, for if they do, much multitude | shall perish of them. The priests | that shall come let them be sanctified lest they be smitten down. And thou and | Aaron shall ascend the hill. | All the people and priests let them not pass their bounds lest God smite them. | Then Moses descended and | told to the people all that our Lord hath said. After this our Lord called Moses | and said: I am the Lord | God that brought you out of Egypt and of thraldom. And gave him the | Commandment first by speaking | and many ceremonies as be rehearsed in the Bible, which is not requisite to be | written here, but the ten | commandments every man is bounden to know. And ere Moses received them written, | he went up into the mount | of Sinai, and fasted there forty days and forty nights ere he received them. In | | | which time he commanded | him to make many things, and to ordain the laws and ceremonies which now be | not had in the new law. | And also as doctors say, Moses learned that time all the histories to-fore written of the | making of heaven and earth, | of Adam, Noah, Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and of Joseph with his brethren. And at | last delivered to him two | tables of stone, both written with the hand of God which follow. | Here follow the Ten Commandments of our Law. | The first commandment that God commanded is this. Thou shalt not worship no strange ne diverse gods. That | is to say, thou shalt worship | no god but me, and thou shalt not retain thine hope but in me, for who that | setteth principally his hope | on any creature or faith or belief in any thing more than in me, sinneth deadly. And | such be they that worship idols, | and make their god of a creature; whosoever so doth, sinneth against this | commandment. And so do they | that overmuch love their treasures, gold or silver, or any other earthly thing that | be passing and transitory, or | set their heart or hope on any thing by which they forget and leave God their | creator and maker which hath | lent to them all that they live by. And therefore ought they to serve him with all | their goods, and above all | things to love him and worship him with all their heart, with all their soul, and | with all their strength, | like as the first commandment enseigneth and teacheth us. | The second commandment is | this, that thou shalt not take the name of God in vain, that is to say, thou shalt | not swear by him for nothing. | In this commandment our Lord commandeth in the gospel that thou shalt not | | | swear by the heaven ne by | earth ne by other creature. But for good cause and rightful a man may swear | without sin, as in judgment | or in requiring of truth, or without judgment in good and needful causes. And in | none other manner without | reason by the name of our Lord and for nought. If he swear false wittingly he is | forsworn, and that is against | the commandment and sinneth deadly, for he sweareth against his conscience, | and that is when he sweareth | by advice and by deliberation, but a man should swear truly and yet not | for nought or for any vain | or ill thing, ne maliciously. But to swear lightly without hurt or blame is venial sin, | but the custom thereof is | perilous and may well turn to deadly sin but if he take heed. But he then that sweareth | horribly by our Lord, or | by any of his members, or by his saints in despite, and blasphemeth in things that be | not true, or otherwise, he sinneth | deadly, he may have no reason whereby he may excuse him. And they that | most accustom them in | this sin they sin most, etc. The third commandment is that thou have mind and | remember that thou hallow | and keep holy thy Sabbath day or Sunday. That is to say, that thou shalt do no work | nor operation on the Sunday | or holy day, but thou shalt rest from all worldly labour and intend to prayer, and to | serve God thy maker, which | rested the seventh day of the works that he made in the six days tofore, in which | he made and ordained the world. | This commandment accomplisheth he that keepeth to his power the peace of | his conscience for to serve | God more holily. Then this day that the Jews called Sabbath is as much to say as | rest. This commandment may | no man keep spiritually that is encumbered in his conscience with deadly sin, | such a conscience can not | be in rest ne in peace as long as he is in such a state. In the stead of the Sabbath day | which was straitly kept in | the old law, holy church hath established the Sunday in the new law. For our Lord | | | arose from death to life | on the Sunday, and therefore we ought to keep it holily, and be in rest from the works of | the week tofore, and to | cease of the work of sin, and to intend to do ghostly works, and to follow our Lord | beseeching him of mercy | and to thank him for his benefits, for they that break the Sunday and the other | solemn feasts that be stablished | to be hallowed in holy church, they sin deadly, for they do directly against the | commandment of God aforesaid | and holy church, but if it be for some necessity that holy church admitteth and | granteth. But they sin much | more then, that employ the Sunday and the feasts in sins, in lechery, in going to | taverns in the service time, | in gluttony and drinking drunk, and in other sins, outrages against God. For alas | for sorrow I trow there is more | sin committed on the Sunday and holy days and feasts than in the other work | days. For then be they drunk, | fight and slay, and be not occupied virtuously in God's service as they ought to do. | And as God commandeth us | to remember and have in mind to keep and hallow the holy day, they that so do | sin deadly and observe and | keep not this third commandment. These three commandments be written | in the first table and appertain | only to God. The fourth commandment is that thou shalt honour and | worship thy father and | mother, for thou shalt live the longer on earth. This commandment admonisheth us | that we be well ware to | anger father and mother in any wise. Or who that curseth them or set hand on them in | evil will, sinneth deadly. | In this commandment is understood the honour that we should do to our ghostly | | | and spiritual fathers, that is | to them that have the cure of us, to teach and chastise us, as be the prelates of the | Church, and they that have | the charge and cure of our souls, and to keep our bodies. And he that will not obey | to him that hath the cure over | him when he enseigneth and teacheth him good that he is bound to do, he | sinneth grievously and is | inobedient, which is deadly sin. The fifth commandment is that thou shalt slay no man. | This commandment will that | no man shall slay the other for vengeance, ne for his goods, or for any other evil | cause, it is deadly sin. But | for to slay malefactors in executing of justice or for other good cause, if it be | lawful it may well be done. | In this commandment is defended the sin of wrath and hate, of rancour and of | ire. For as the Scripture saith: | Who hateth his brother is an homicide when it is by his will, and he sinneth | deadly; and he that beareth | anger in his heart long, for such ire long holden in the heart is rancour and hate, | which is deadly sin, | and is against this commandment. And yet sinneth he more that doth or purchaseth shame, | villany or hurt to another wrongfully, | or counselleth or helpeth to grieve another for to avenge him. But wrath | or anger lightly past without | will to noy or grieve any other, is not deadly sin. The sixth commandment is, thou shalt not | do adultery, that is to say, | thou shalt not have fleshly company with another man's wife. In this commandment it is forbidden | and defended all manner | sin of the flesh which is called generally lechery, which is a right foul sin and | villainous. How be it that there | is some branch of it that is not deadly sin, as oft movings of the flesh that may | | | not be eschewed, which men | ought to restrain and refrain as much as they may. And this cometh oft times | by outrageous drinking and | eating, or by evil thought, or foul touching, for in such things may be great peril. And | in this commandment is | defended all sin against nature, in what manner it be done in his person or other. | The seventh commandment is | that thou shalt do no theft. This commandment forbiddeth to take away other | men's things whatsomever they | be, without reason, against the will of them that owe or make them. In this | commandment is defended ravin, |usury, robbery and deceit, and beguiling other for to have their havoir or | good. And he that doth | against this commandment is bound to make restitution and yield again that he hath | so gotten or taken, if he | know to whom he ought to render it. And if he know not, he is bounden to give it | for God's sake, or do by | the counsel of holy church. For who retaineth wrongfully and without reason other | men's goods against their will, | sinneth deadly, if he pay not where as he oweth, if he know where and be in his | power and hath whereof. | And if he know not let him do by the counsel of holy church, and whoso doth not so, | sinneth against this commandment | deadly. The eighth commandment is that thou shalt not bear | false witness against thy | neighbour. In this commandment is forbidden that no man shall lie | wittingly, for whoso lieth | doth against this commandment. And also that he forswear not him in | judgment, ne make no leasings | to annoy ne grieve another, nor he ought not to missay ne speak evil of | | | others in intention to impair | his good name and fame, for it is deadly sin. Against this commandment do they | that say evil of good men | behind them, and backbite them, and do this wittingly by malice, which is called | detraction. And also they | that accuse some of their folly, or hearken by manner of adulation or flattering, when | they that men speak of | be not present. They that do thus and say such words do against this commandment, for | they be all false witnesses. | The ninth commandment is that thou shalt not desire the wife of thy neighbour, nor shalt not covet her | in thine heart, that is | to say, thou shalt not consent to sin with her with thy body. This commandment defendeth to | desire to have company with | all manner women out of marriage, and the evil signs that be without forth make | men for to draw them to sin, | as the evil words of such matter, or the foul and evil attouching, kissing, handling | and such other. And the | difference between this commandment and the sixth aforesaid is that, the sixth | commandment forbiddeth the deed | without forth, and this forbiddeth the consenting within forth; for the | consenting within forth to have | company with a woman that is not his by marriage is deadly sin, after the | sentence of the gospel that | saith: Who that seeth a woman and coveteth her in his heart, he hath now | sinned in his heart and deadly. | This is to understand of the consenting expressed in his thought. | The tenth commandment is that |thou shalt not covet nothing that is, or longeth to, thy neighbour. This | commandment defendeth will to have | things that belong to other men by evil reason or wrongfully. In this | commandment is defended envy | of other men's weal, of other men's grace or welfare. For such envy cometh of | evil covetise to have such good | or such grace or fortune as he seeth in other. And this covetise is when the | consenting and thought be certainly | one, then it is deadly sin. And if there be any evil movings without | will and consenting of damage | or hurt of other, this is not deadly sin. If he sin herein it is but venial sin. These | be the ten commandments of | our Lord, of which the three first belong to God, and the seven other be | ordained for our neighbours. | Every person that hath wit and understanding in himself, and age, is bound to | know them and to obey | and keep these ten commandments aforesaid or else he sinneth deadly. | Thus Moses abode in | the hill forty days and forty nights and received of Almighty God the tables with the | commandments written with the | hand of God; and also received and learned many ceremonies and statutes that | God ordained, by which | the children of Israel should be ruled and judged. And whiles that Moses was thus with | our Lord on the mount, | the children of Israel saw that he tarried and descended not, and some of them said that | he was dead or gone away, | and would not return again, and some said nay; but in conclusion they gathered | them together against Aaron, | and said to him: Make to us some gods that may go tofore us, we know not what | is befallen to Moses. Then | Aaron said: Take the gold that hangeth in the ears of your wives and your children, | and bring it to me. The | people did as he bade, and brought the gold to Aaron, which he took and molt it | and made thereof a calf. | Then they said, These be thy gods, Israel, that brought thee out of the land of Egypt. | Then the people made an altar | tofore it, and made great joy and mirth, and danced and played tofore the calf, | and offered and made sacrifices | thereto. Our Lord spake to Moses, saying: Go hence and descend down, thy | people have sinned whom | thou hast brought forth from the land of Egypt. They have soon forsaken and left the | way which thou hast showed | to them. They have made to them a calf blown, and they have worshipped it, and | offered sacrifices thereto, saying: | These be thy gods, Israel, that have brought thee out of the land of Egypt. | Yet said our Lord to Moses: | I see well that this people is of evil disposition, suffer me that I may wreak my | wrath on them, and I shall | destroy them. I shall make thee governor of great people. Moses then prayed our | | | Lord God saying: Why art | thou wroth, Lord, against thy people that thou hast brought out of the land of Egypt | in a great strength and | a boisterous hand? I beseech thee, Lord, let not the Egyptians say that their God hath | locked them out for to slay | them in the mountains. I pray thee Lord that thy wrath may assuage, and be thou | pleased and benign upon | the wickedness of thy people. Remember Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob thy servants, to | whom thou promisedst and | swaredst by thyself saying: I shall multiply your seed as the stars of heaven, and the | universal land of which I | have spoken I shall give to your seed, and ye shall possess and have it ever. And | with these words our Lord | was pleased that he would do no harm as he had said unto his people; and Moses | returned from the mount, | bearing two tables of stone, written both with the hand of God. And the scripture | that was in the tables were | the ten commandments as fore be written. Joshua hearing the great noise of the | children of Israel said to | Moses: I trow they fight beneath, which answered and said: It is no cry of | exhorting men to fight, ne | noise to compel me to flee, but I hear the noise of singing. When he approached to | them he saw the calf | and the instruments of mirth, and he was so wroth that he threw down the tables and | brake them at the foot | of the hill, and ran and caught down the calf that they had made, and burnt and smote | it all to powder, which | he cast into water and gave it to drink to the children of Israel. Then said Moses to | Aaron: What hath this people | done to thee that thou hast made to sin grievously? To whom he answered: Let | | | not my lord take none indignation | at me, thou knowest well that this people is prone and ready to sin. They said | to me: Make us gods that | may go tofore us; we know not what is fallen to this Moses that led us out of Egypt. | |To whom I said: Who of you that hath gold give it me; they took and gave it to me, and I cast it into | the fire, and thereof |came out this calf. And then said Moses: All they that be of God's part and have not sinned in this | calf let them join to me; and |the children of Levi joined to him, and he bade each man take a sword on his side | and take vengeance and |slay every each his brother, friend, and his neighbour that have trespassed. And so | | | the children of Levi went | and slew thirty three thousand of the children of Israel. And then said Moses: Ye have| hallowed this day your hands |unto our Lord, and ye shall be therefore blessed. The second day Moses spake | to the people and said: |Ye have committed and done the greatest sin that may be. I shall ascend unto our Lord | again, and shall pray him |for your sin. Then Moses ascended again, and received afterwards two tables | again, which our Lord |bade him make. And therein our Lord wrote the commandments. And after, our Lord | commanded him to make | an ark and a tabernacle: in which ark was kept three things. First the rod with | which he did marvels, |a pot full of manna, and the two tables with commandments. And then after Moses | taught them the law; how |each man should behave him against other and what he should do, and what he | should not do, and departed | them into twelve tribes, and commanded that every man should bring a rod into the| Tabernacle. And Moses wrote |each name on the rod, and Moses shut fast the tabernacle. And on the morn there | was found one of the rods |that burgeoned and bare leaves and fruit, and was of an almond tree. That rod fell to Aaron. | And after this, long time, |the children desired to eat flesh and remembered of the flesh that they ate in Egypt, | and grudged against Moses, |and would have ordained to them a duke for to have returned into Egypt. Wherefore | Moses was so woe that he | desired of our Lord to deliver him from this life, because he saw them so unkind| against God. Then God |sent to them so great plenty of curlews that two days and one night they flew so thick | | | by the ground that they | took great number, for they flew but the height of two cubits. And they had so many that| they dried them hanging on |their tabernacles and tents. Yet were they not content, but ever grudging, wherefore | God smote them and took | vengeance on them by a great plague and many died and were buried there. And then| from thence they went into | Hazeroth and dwelt. After this Miriam and Aaron, brother and sister of Moses| began to speak against | Moses, because of his wife which was of Ethiopia, and said: God hath not spoken| only by Moses, hath he | not also spoken to us? Wherefore our Lord was wroth. Moses was the| humblest and the meekest | man that was in all the world. Anon then, our Lord said to him, and to Aaron and to| Miriam: Go ye three only |unto the tabernacle; and there our Lord said that there was none like to Moses, to | whom he had spoken mouth |to mouth, and reproved Aaron and Miriam because they spake so to Moses, and | being wroth, departed from |them, and anon, Miriam was smitten and made leper and white like snow. And when | Aaron beheld her and saw |her smitten with leprosy, he said to Moses: I beseech the Lord that thou set not the | sin on us which we have |committed follily, and let not this our sister be as a dead woman, or as born out of | time and cast away from | her mother, behold and see, half her flesh is devoured of the leprosy. Then Moses | cried unto our Lord, saying: | I beseech thee Lord that thou heal her; to whom our Lord said: If her father had| spit in her face should she |not be put to shame and rebuke seven days? Let her depart out of the castles | | | seven days, and after she |shall be called in again. So Miriam was shut out of the castles seven days, and the | people removed not from |the place till she was called again. After this our Lord commanded Moses to send | men into the land of Canaan |that he should give them charge for to see and consider the goodness thereof, and that of | every tribe he should send |some. Moses did so as our Lord had commanded, which went in and brought of the | fruits with them, and they |brought a branch with one cluster of grapes as much as two men might bear | between them upon a colestaff. | When they had seen the country and considered by the space of forty days they| returned and told the commodities |of the land, but some said that the people were strong, and many kings and | giants, in such wise that | they said it was impregnable and that the people were much stronger than they were.| Wherefore the people anon |were afeard, and murmured against Moses and would return again into Egypt. Then | Joshua and Caleb, which were |two of them that had considered the land, said to the people: Why grudge ye | and wherefore be ye afraid? |We have well seen the country, and it is good to win. The country floweth full | of milk and honey, be not rebel |against God, he shall give it us, be ye not afeard. Then all the people cried | against them, and when they |would have taken stones and stoned them, our Lord in his glory appeared in a | cloud upon the covering of | the tabernacle, and said to Moses: This people believeth not the signs and wonders| that I have showed and |done to them. I shall destroy them all by pestilence, and I shall make thee a prince | | | upon people greater and |stronger than this is. Then prayed Moses to our Lord for the people, that he would | have pity on them and not |destroy them, but to have mercy on them after the magnitude of his mercy. And | our Lord at his request forgave |them. Nevertheless our Lord said that all the men that had seen his majesty, and | the signs and marvels that |he did in Egypt, and in desert, and have tempted him ten times, and not obeyed | unto his voice, shall not |see ne come into the country and land that I have promised to their fathers, but | Joshua and Caleb, my servants, |shall enter into the land, and their seed shall possess it. Moses told all this unto | the children and they wailed | and sorrowed greatly therefore. After this the people removed from thence| and came into the desert |of Sin; and there Miriam, sister of Moses and Aaron, died, and was buried in the same place. Then | the people lacked water and | came and grudged against Moses, and yet wished they had abided in Egypt. Then| Moses and Aaron entered into | the Tabernacle and fell down to the ground low, and prayed unto our Lord,| saying: Lord God, hear the clamour | of thy people, and open to them thy treasure, a fountain of living water,| that they may drink and |the murmuration of them may cease. Our Lord said to him then: Take the rod in thy | hand, and thou and Aaron | thy brother, assemble and gather the people and speak ye to the stone, and it shall| give out water. And |when the water cometh let all the multitude drink and their beasts. Moses then took the | rod as our Lord bade, | and gathered all the people tofore the stone and said to them: Hear ye rebels and out of| belief; trow ye not that |we may give you water out of this stone? And he lift up his hand and smote between | the stone, and water came | and flowed out in the most largest wise, in such wise that the people and beasts| drank their fill. Then said |God to Moses and Aaron: Because ye have not believed me and sanctified my | name tofore the children |of Israel, and given to me the laud, but have done this in your name, ye shall not bring | this people into the | land that I shall give to them. And therefore this water was called the water of| contradiction, where the children | grudged against God. Anon after this, by God's commandment, Moses took | Aaron upon the hill, |and despoiled him of his vesture, and clothed therewith his son Eleazar, and made him | upperest bishop for his father |Aaron. And there Aaron died in the top of the hill, and Moses descended with | Eleazar. And when all |the multitude of people saw that Aaron was dead, they wept and wailed on him thirty | days in every tribe and family. |After this the people went about the land of Edom, and began to wax weary, and grudged against our | Lord and Moses, and |said yet: Why hast thou led us out of the land of Egypt for to slay us in this desert and | |there is no water, and our souls abhor and loathe this light meat. For which cause | God sent among them fiery- |serpents, which bit and wounded many of them and slew also. Then they that | were hurt came into Moses |and said: We have sinned, for we have spoken against our Lord and thee; pray for | us unto God that he deliver |from us these serpents. Then Moses prayed our Lord for the people. And our Lord | said to him: Make a serpent |of brass and set it up for a sign, and whosomever be hurt, and looketh thereon and | beholdeth it, shall live and | be whole. Then Moses made a serpent of brass, and set it up for a sign, and when| they that were hurt beheld | it they were made whole. After this when Moses had showed to them all the laws| of our Lord, and ceremonies, |and had governed them forty years, and that he was an hundred and twenty | years old, he ascended from | the fields of Moab upon the mountain of Nebo into the top of Pisgah against| Jericho, and there our Lord | showed to him all the land of Gilead unto Dan, and the land of promise from that| one end unto that other. |And then our Lord said to him: This is the land that I promised to Abraham, Isaac, and | Jacob, saying: I shall |give it to thy seed. Now thou hast seen it with thine eyes, and shalt not enter ne come | | | therein. And there in that | place died Moses, servant of our Lord, as God commanded, and was buried in the| vale of the land of Moab | against Beth-peor. And yet never man knew his sepulchre unto this day. Moses was| an hundred and twenty | years old when he died, his eyes never dimmed, ne his teeth were never moved. The| children of Israel wept and |mourned for him thirty days in the fields of Moab. Joshua the son of Nun was | replenished with the spirit of | wisdom; for Moses set on him his hands, and the children obeyed him as our Lord| had commanded to Moses. |And there was never after a prophet in Israel like unto Moses, which knew and | spake to God face to face |in all signs and tokens that God did and showed by him in the land of Egypt to | Pharaoh and all his servants. |The History of Joshua. After Moses, Joshua was duke and leader of the | children of Israel, and brought | them into the land of behest, and did many great battles. For whom God| showed many great marvels | and in especial one; that was that the sun stood still at his request, till he had | overcome his enemies, by |the space of a day. And our Lord, when he fought, sent down such hail-stones that | slew more of his enemies |with the stones than with man's hand. Joshua was a noble man and governed well | Israel, and divided the |land unto the twelve tribes by lot. And when he was an hundred and ten years old he died. And divers | dukes after him judged |and deemed Israel, of whom be noble histories, as of Jephthah, Gideon, and Sampson, | which I pass over unto |the histories of the kings, which is read in holy church from the first Sunday after Trinity | | | Sunday, unto the first Sunday | of August. And in the month of August is read the Book of Sapience, and in| the month of September be | read the histories of Job, of Tobit, and of Judith, and in October the history of the | Maccabees, and in November |the book of Ezechiel and his visions. And in December the history of Advent. and | the book of lsaiah unto |Christmas and after the feast of Epiphany unto Septuagesima be read the Epistles of | Paul. And this is the rule |of the temporal through the year, etc. The History of Saul. | The first Sunday after Trinity |Sunday unto the first Sunday of the month of August is read the Book of Kings. | This history maketh mention | that there was a man named Elkanah which had two wives, that one was| named Hannah, and the name | of the second Peninnah. Peninnah had children and Hannah had none but was| barren. The good man | at such days as he was bounden, went to his city for to make his sacrifice and worship| God. In this time Hophni |and Phineas sons of Eli; the great priest, were priests of our Lord. This Elkanah gave | to Peninnah at such times | as he offered, to her sons and daughters, certain parts, and unto Hannah he gave but| one part. Peninnah did | much sorrow and reproof to Hannah because she had had no children, and thus did | every year, and provoked |her to wrath, but she wept for sorrow and ate no meat. To whom Elkanah her husband | said: Hannah, why weepest | thou? and wherefore eatest thou not? Why is thine heart put to affliction? Am I not| better to thee than ten sons? |Then Hannah arose after she had eaten and drunk in Shilo and went to pray unto | our Lord, making to him |a vow if that she might have a son she should offer him to our Lord. Eli that time sat | tofore the posts of the |house of our Lord. And Hannah besought and prayed our Lord, making to him a vow, if | | | that she might have a |son she should offer him to our Lord. And it was so that she prayed so heartily in her | thought and mind, that |her lips moved not, wherefore Eli bare her on hand that she was drunk. And she said: | Nay, my Lord, I am a sorrowful | woman, I have drunken no wine ne drink that may cause me to be drunken, but I| have made my prayers, |and cast my soul in the sight of Almighty God. Repute me not as one of the daughters of | Belial, for the prayer that | I have made and spoken yet is of the multitude of the heaviness and sorrow of my| heart. Then Eli the priest |said to her: Go in peace, the God of Israel give to thee the petition of thy heart for | that thou hast prayed him. | And she said: Would God that thy handservant might find grace in thy sight. And| so she departed, and on |the morn they went home again in to Ramatha. After this our Lord remembered her, and | Elkanah knew her, and she |conceived, and at time accustomed brought forth and bare a fair son and named | him Samuel for so much as | she asked him of our Lord. Wherefore Elkanah, her husband, went and offered a | solemn sacrifice and his |vow accomplished, but Hannah ascended not with him. She said to her husband that she | would not go till her child | were weaned and taken from the pap. And after when Samuel was weaned, and was | an infant, the mother |took him, and three calves and three measures of meal, and a bottle of wine, and | brought him unto the house |of our Lord in Shilo and sacrificed that calf and offered the child to Eli, and told | to Eli that she was the |woman that prayed our Lord for that child. And there Hannah worshipped our Lord and | | | thanked him, and there | made this psalm which is one of the canticles: Exultavit cor meum in domino, et| exaltatum est cornu meum | in deo meo, and so forth, all the remnant of that psalm. And then Elkanah with his | wife returned home to his |house. After this our Lord visited Hannah, and she conceived three sons, and two | daughters, which she brought |forth. And Samuel abode in the house of our Lord and was minister in the sight of | Eli. But the two sons | of Eli, Hophni and Phineas were children of Belial, not knowing our Lord, but did great| sins against the commandments | of God. And our Lord sent a prophet to Eli because he corrected not his sons,| and said he would take | the office from him and from his house, and that there should not be an old man in his | house and kindred, but |should die ere they came to man's estate, and that God should raise a priest that | should be faithful and after his heart. |Samuel served and ministered our Lord in a surplice before Eli. And on a time as Eli lay in his bed his | eyes were so dimmed | that he might not see the lantern of God till it was quenched and put out. Samuel slept in| the temple of our Lord |whereas the ark of God was, and our Lord called Samuel, which answered: I am ready, | and ran to Eli and said: |I am ready, thou calledst me. Which said: I called thee not my son, return and sleep, | and he returned and slept. |And our Lord called him the second time, and he arose and went to Eli and said: Lo! | I am here, thou calledst |me, which answered: I called thee not, go thy way, and sleep. Samuel knew not the | calling of our Lord yet, ne |there was never revelation showed him tofore. And our Lord called Samuel the | third time, which arose and |came to Eli and said: I am here, for thou calledst me. Then Eli understood that our | | | Lord had called him, and said |to Samuel: Go and sleep, and if thou be called again thou shalt say: Speak, Lord, | for thy servant heareth thee. |Samuel returned and slept in his place, and our Lord came and called him: Samuel! | Samuel! and Samuel said: | Say, Lord, what it pleaseth, for thy servant heareth. And then our Lord said to| Samuel: Lo! I make my |word to be known in Israel that whoso heareth, his ears shall ring and sound thereof. In | that day I shall raise against |Eli all that I have said upon his house. I shall begin and accomplish it. I have given | him in knowledge that I |shall judge his house for wickedness, forasmuch as he knoweth his sons to do | wickedly, and hath not corrected |them. Therefore I have sworn to the house of Eli that the wickedness of his | house shall not be made |clean with sacrifices ne gifts never. Samuel slept till on the morn, and then he rose | and opened the doors |of the house of our Lord in his surplice; and Samuel was afeard to show this vision | unto Eli. Eli called him |and asked what our Lord hath said to him and charged him to tell him all: and Samuel | told to him all that our |Lord had said, and hid nothing from him. And he said: He is our Lord, what it pleaseth | him, let him do. Samuel |grew, and our Lord was with him in all his works. And it was known to all Israel from | Dan to Beersheba that Samuel |was the true prophet of our Lord. After this it was so that the Philistines warred | against the children of Israel, |against whom there was a battle, and the children of Israel overthrown and put to | flight. Wherefore they assembled | again, and took with them the ark of God which Hophni and Phineas, sons of| | | Eli, bare, and when they |came with a great multitude with the ark, the Philistines were afraid. | Notwithstanding they fought against |them manly and slew thirty thousand footmen of the children of Israel | and took the ark of God. |And the two sons of Eli were slain, Hophni and Phineas. And a man of the tribe of | Benjamin ran for to tell |this unto Eli which sat abiding some tidings of the battle. This man, as soon as he | entered into the town, told |how the field was lost, the people slain, and how the ark was taken. And there was | a great sorrow and cry. |And when Eli heard this cry and wailing he demanded what this noise was and meant, | and wherefore they so sorrowed. | Then the man hied and came and told to Eli. Eli was at that tide ninety-eight| years old, and his eyes |were waxen blind and might not see, and he said: I am he that came from the battle, and | fled this day from the host. |To whom Eli said: What is there done my son? He answered: The host of Israel is | overthrown and fled tofore |the Philistines, and a great ruin is made among the people, thy two sons be slain | and the ark of God is taken. | And when Eli heard him name the ark of God he fell down backward by the door| and brake his neck and |there died. He was an old man and had judged Israel forty years. Then the Philistines |took the ark of God and | set it in their temple of Dagon by their god Dagon, in Ashdod. On the morn the next| day early, when they of |Ashdod came into their temple, they saw their god Dagon lie on the ground tofore the | ark of God upon his face, | and the head and the two hands of Dagon were cut off. And there abode no more| | | but the trunk only in the place. | And God showed many vengeances to them of the country as long as the ark was| with them, for God smote |them with sickness in their secret parts, and wells boiled in towns and fields of that | region, and there grew among |them so many mice, that they suffered great persecution and confusion in that | city. The people seeing this | vengeance and plague said: Let not the ark of the God of Israel abide longer with us,| for his hand is hard |on us and on Dagon our god, and sent for the great masters and governors of the | Philistines, and when they | were gathered they said: What shall we do with the ark of the God of Israel? And| they answered: Let it | be led all about the cities, and so it was, and a great vengeance and death was had upon| all the cities, and smote |every man with plague from the most to the least; in such wise that the nether parts of | them putrified and rotted |off them, and that they made to them seats of furs and skins to sit soft. And then they | sent the ark of God into |Acheron and when they of Acheron saw the ark, they cried saying: They have | brought the ark of the God | of Israel to us, for to slay us and our people. They cried that the ark should be sent | home again, for much |people were dead by the vengeance that was taken on them in their secret parts, | and a great howling and |wailing was among them. The ark was in the region of the Philistines seven months. | After this they counselled | with their priests what they should do with the ark, and it was concluded it should| be sent home again, but | the priests said: If ye send it home, send it not void, but what ye owe pay for your | | | trespass and sin, and then |ye shall be healed and cured of your sicknesses. And so they ordained after the | number of the five provinces |of the Philistines, five pieces of gold and five mice of gold, and led to a wain | and put in it two wild kine, | which never bare yoke, and said, Leave their calves at home and take the ark and set| it on the wain, and also |the vessels and pieces of gold that ye have paid for your trespass, set them at the side | of the ark and let them | go where they will, and thus they sent the ark of God unto the children of Israel.| Samuel then governed Israel |long, and when he was old he set his sons judges on Israel, whose names were Joel | and Abiah. And these |two his sons walked not in his ways, but declined after covetise and took gifts and | perverted justice and doom. |Then assembled and gathered together all the greatest of birth of the children | of Israel, and came to | Samuel and said: Lo! thou art old and thy sons walk not in thy ways, wherefore ordain to| us a king that may judge |and rule us like as all other nations have. This displeased much to Samuel when | they said Ordain on us a king. |Then Samuel counselled on this matter with our Lord, to whom God said: Hear | the voice of the people |that speak to thee: they have not cast only thee away, but me, that I should not reign on | them, for they do now like | as they ever have done sith I brought them out of Egypt unto this day; that is that| they have served false gods | and strange, and so do they to thee. Notwithstanding hear them, and tell to them| tofore, the right of the king, | and how he shall oppress them. Samuel told all this to the people that demanded to have| | | a king, and said: |This shall be the right of a king that shall reign on you. He shall take your sons and make | them his men of war, |and set them in his chariots and shall make them his carters and riders of his horse in his | chariots and carts, and |shall ordain of them tribunes and centurions, earers and tillers of his fields, and mowers | and reapers of his corn, |and he shall make them smiths, and armourers of harness and cars, and he shall also | take your daughters and make |them his unguentaries, and ready at his will and pleasure; he shall also take | from you your fields and |vineyards and the best olives and give them to his servants, and he shall task and | dime your corn and sheaves, |and the rents of your vineyards he shall value for to give to his officers and | servants, and shall take |from you your servants, both men and women, and set them to his works. And your | asses and beasts he also | shall take to his labour, your flocks of sheep he shall task and take the tenth or what| shall please him, and |ye shall be to him thrall and servants. And ye shall cry then wishing to flee from the | face of your king, and our | Lord shall not hear you nor deliver you because ye have asked for you a king. Yet| for all this the people |would not hear Samuel, but said: Give to us a king, for a king shall reign on us, and we | shall be as all other people |be. And our king shall judge us and go before us, and he shall fight our battles for us. | And Samuel heard all and |counselled with our Lord. To whom God commanded to ordain to them a king, and so | he did, for he took a man |of the tribe of Benjamin whose name was Saul, a good man and chosen, and | | | there was not a better among | all the children of Israel, and he was higher of stature from the shoulder upward | than any other of all the people. | And Samuel anointed him king upon Israel, and said to him: Our Lord God| hath anointed thee upon |his heritage and ordained thee a prince, and thou shalt deliver his people from the | hands of his enemies that |be in the circuit and countries about, and so departed from him. And Samuel after this | gathered the people together |and said: Our Lord saith that he hath brought you from the land of Egypt, and | saved you from the hands |of all the kings that were your enemies and pursued you, and ye have forsaken our | Lord God that hath only | delivered you from all your evil and tribulations, and have said: Ordain upon us a king. | Wherefore now stand every | each in his tribe, and we shall lot who shall be our king. And the lot fell on the| tribe of Benjamin, and |in that tribe the lot fell upon Saul the son of Kish. And they sought him and could | not find him, and it |was told him that he was hid in his house at home, and the people ran thither and fetched | him and set him amidst | all the people. And he was higher than any of all the people from the shoulder| upward. Then Samuel said |to the people, Now ye see and behold whom our Lord hath chosen, for there is | none like him of all the people. | And then all the people cried: Vivat Rex, live the king. Samuel wrote the law of | the realm to the people | in a book, and put it tofore our Lord. Thus was Saul made the first king in Israel, and| anon had much war, for | on all sides men warred on the children of Israel, and he defended them, and Saul had| divers battles and had victory. |Samuel came on a time to Saul and said God commanded him to fight against Amalek and | that he should slay |and destroy man, woman, and child, ox, cow, camel and ass and sheep, and spare nothing. Then | Saul assembled his people |and had two hundred thousand footmen and twenty thousand men of the tribe | of Judah, and went forth |and fought against Amalek and slew them, sauf he saved Agag the King of Amalek alive, | and all other he slew, |but he spared the best flocks of sheep and of other beasts, and also good clothes, and | wethers, and all that was | good he spared, and whatsomever was foul he destroyed. And this was| showed to Samuel by our Lord, |saying: Me forthinketh that I have ordained Saul king upon Israel, for he hath | forsaken me, and not fulfilled | my commandments. Samuel was sorry herefor, and wailed all the night. On| the morn he rose and came |to Saul, and Saul offered sacrifice to our Lord of the pillage that he had taken. | And Samuel demanded of | Saul what noise that was he heard of sheep and beasts, and he said that they were of| the beasts that the people |had brought from Amalek to offer unto our Lord, and the residue were slain. They | have spared the best and |fattest for to do sacrifice with unto thy Lord God. Then said Samuel to Saul: | Rememberest thou not that | whereas thou wert least among the tribes of Israel thou wert made upperest? And| our Lord anointed thee, |and made thee king. And he said to thee: Go and slay the sinners of Amalek and | leave none alive, man ne |beast; why hast thou not obeyed the commandment of our Lord? And hast run to | robbery and done evil | in the sight of God? And then said Saul to Samuel: I have taken Agag, king of the | Amalekites, and brought |him with me, but I have slain Amalek. The people have taken of the sheep and beasts | of the best for to offer | unto our Lord God. And then said Samuel: Trowest thou that our Lord would rather have| sacrifice and offerings than |not to obey his commandments. Better is obedience than sacrifice, and | better it is to take heed |to do after thy Lord than to offer the fat kidneys of the wethers. For it is a sin to | withstand and to repugn | against his Lord like the sin of idolatry. And because thou hast not obeyed our Lord,| and cast away his word, |our Lord hath cast thee away that thou shalt not be king. Then said Saul to Samuel: I | have sinned for I have |not obeyed the word of God and thy words, but have dreaded the people and obeyed to | | | their request, but I pray |thee to bear my sin and trespass and return with me that I may worship our Lord. And | Samuel answered, I shall |not return with thee. And so Samuel departed, and yet ere he departed, he did do slay | Agag the king. And Samuel |saw never Saul after unto his death.. Then our Lord bade Samuel to go and anoint one of the | sons of Isai, otherwise called | Jesse, to be king of Israel. And so he came into Bethlehem unto Jesse and bade| him bring his sons tofore |him. This Jesse had eight sons, he brought tofore Samuel seven of them, and | Samuel said there was not |he that he would have. Then he said that there was no more, save one which was | youngest and yet a child, |and kept sheep in the field. And Samuel said: Send for him, for I shall eat no bread | till he come. And so he was | sent for and brought. He was ruddy and fair of visage and well favoured, and| Samuel arose, and took an |horn with oil and anointed him in the middle of his brethren. And forthwith the | spirit of our Lord came directly |in him that same day and ever after Then Samuel departed and came in to | Ramah. And the spirit |of our Lord went away from Saul and an evil spirit oft vexed him. Then his servants said | to him: Thou oft art vexed |with an evil spirit, it were good to have one that could harp, to be with thee when | the spirit vexeth thee, thou |shalt bear it the lighter. And he said to his servants: Provide ye to me such one. And | then one said: I saw one | of Jesse's sons play on a harp, a fair child and strong, wise in his talking and our Lord is| with him. Then Saul sent | messages to Jesse for David, and Jesse sent David his son with a present of bread, | | | wine, and a kid, to Saul. |And always when the evil spirit vexed Saul, David harped tofore him and anon he was | eased, and the evil spirit went his way. |After this the Philistines gathered them into great hosts to make war against Saul and the children of Israel, | and Saul gathered the children |of Israel together and came against them in the vale of Terebinthe. The Philistines | stood upon the hill |on that other part, and the valley was between them. And there came out of the host of the | Philistines a great giant |named Goliath of Gath; he was six cubits high and a palm, and a helmet of brass on his | head, and was clad in a habergeon. |The weight of his habergeon was of five thousand shekels of weight of | metal. He had boots of brass |on his calves, and his shoulders were covered with plates of brass. His glaive | was as a great colestaff, |and there was thereon six shekels of iron, and his squire went tofore him and cried | against them of Israel, and | said they should choose a man to fight a singular battle against Goliath, and if he| were overcome the Philistines | should be servants to Israel, and if he prevailed and overcame his enemy, they| of Israel should serve the |Philistines, and thus he did cry forty days long. Saul and the children of Israel were | sore afraid. David was | at this time in Bethlehem with his father, and kept sheep, and three of his brethren| were in the host with Saul. |To whom Jesse said: lodgings of the Philistines, and took all the pillage. | David took the head | of Goliath and brought it into Jerusalem, and his arms he brought into his tabernacle.| And Abner brought David, |having the head of Goliath in his hand, tofore Saul. And Saul demanded of him of | what kindred that he was, |and he said that he was son of Jesse of Bethlehem, and forthwith that same time | Jonathan, the son of Saul, |loved David as his own soul. Saul then would not give him licence to return to his | | | father, and Jonathan and |he were confederate and swore each of them to be true to other, for Jonathan gave his | coat that he was clad withal, |and all his other garments, unto his sword and spear, unto David. And David did all | that ever Saul bade him |do wisely and prudently. And when he returned from the battle, and Goliath was slain, | the women came out from |every town singing with choirs and timpanes against the coming of Saul with | great joy and gladness, saying: |Saul hath slain a thousand and David hath slain ten thousand. And this | saying displeased much to Saul, |which said: They have given to David ten thousand and to me one thousand; | what may he more have save | the realm, and to be king? For this cause Saul never loved David after that day, ne| never looked on him friendly | but ever sought means afterward to destroy David, for he dreaded that David| should be lord with him, |and put him from him. And David was wise and kept him well from him. And after | this he wedded Michal, |daughter of Saul, and Jonathan made oft times peace between Saul and David, yet Saul | kept no promise, but ever | lay in wait to slay David. And Jonathan warned David thereof. And David gat him a| company of men of war |to the number of four hundred, and kept him in the mountains. | And on a time David |was at home with his wife Michal, and Saul sent thither men of war to slay him in his | house in the morning; and |when Michal heard thereof, she said to David: But if thou save thyself this night, to | morn thou shalt die, |and she let him out by a window by which he escaped and saved himself. Michal took an | | | image and laid in his |bed, and a rough skin of a goat on the head of the image, and covered it with clothes. And | on the morn Saul sent |spies for David, and it was answered to them that he lay sick in his bed. Then after | this sent Saul messengers for |to see David, and said to them: Bring him to me in his bed that he may be slain. | And when the messengers |came they found a simulachre or an image in his bed, and goats' skins on the head. | Then said Saul to Michal |his daughter: Why hast thou mocked me so, and hast suffered mine enemy to flee? | And Michal answered to |Saul and said: He said to me: Let me go or I shall slay thee. David went to Samuel in Rama | and told him all that Saul | had done to him. And it was told to Saul that David was with Samuel, and he sent thither| messengers to take him. | And when they came they found them with the company of prophets, and they sat and prophesied| with them. And he sent more. |And they did also so. And the third time he sent more messengers. And they also | prophesied. And then Saul |being wroth asked where Samuel and David were, and went to them, and he | prophesied when he came |also, and took off his clothes and was naked all that day and night before Samuel. | David then fled from thence |and came to Jonathan and complained to him saying: What have I offended that | thy father seeketh to slay me? |Jonathan was sorry therefore, for he loved well David. After this Saul ever | sought for to slay David. | And on a time Saul went into a cave for to ease him, and David was within the cave, to| whom his squire said: |Now hath God brought thine enemy into thine hand; now go and slay him. And David | | | said: God forbid that I | should lay any hand on him, he is anointed. I shall never hurt ne grieve him, let God do | his pleasure. And he went |to Saul and cut off a gobet of his mantle and kept it. And when Saul was gone out, | soon after issued David |out and cried to Saul saying: Lo! Saul, God hath brought thee into my hands. I might | have slain thee if I had |would, but God forbade that I should lay hand on thee, my lord anointed of God. And | what have I offended |that thou seekest to slay me? Who art thou? said Saul. Art thou not David my son? Yes, | said David, I am thy servant, |and kneeled down and worshipped him. Then said Saul: I have sinned, and | wept and also said: Thou |art rightfuller than I am, thou hast done to me good end I have done to thee evil. And | thou hast well showed to |me this day that God had brought me into shine hand, and thou hast not slain me. | God reward thee for this, |that thou hast done to me; now know I well that thou shalt reign in Israel. I pray | thee to be friendly to my |seed, and destroy not my house, and swear and promise me that thou take not | away my name from the |house of my father; and David sware and promised to Saul. And then Saul departed | and went home, and David |and his people went in to surer places. Anon after this Samuel died, and was | buried in his house in |Rama. And all Israel bewailed him greatly. Then there was a rich man in the mount of | Carmel that hight Nabal, | and on a time he sheared and clipped his sheep, to whom David sent certain men, and| bade them say that David |greeted him well, and whereas aforetimes his shepherds kept his sheep in desert, he | | | never was grievous to them, |ne they lost not so much as a sheep as long as they were with us, and that he might | ask his servants for they |could tell, and that he would now in their need send them what it pleased him. Nabal | answered to the children of | David: Who is that David? Trow ye that I shall send the meat that I have made ready| for them that shear my | sheep and send it to men that I know not? The men returned and told to David all that | he had said. Then said David |to his men: Let every man take his sword and gird him withal, and David took his | sword and girt him. And |David went and four hundred men followed him, and he left two hundred behind him. | One of the servants of Nabal |told to Abigail, Nabal's wife, how that David had sent messengers from the | desert unto his lord, and |how wroth and wayward he was, and also he said that those men were good enough | to them when they were in desert, |ne never perished beast of ours as long as they were there. They were a | wall and a shield for us both |day and night all the time that we kept our flocks there, wherefore consider what | is to be done. They purpose | to do harm to him and to servants. And she arose and took with her five maidens | which went afoot by her, | and she rode upon an ass, and followed the messengers, and was made wife to David.|And David also took another |wife called Ahinoam of Jezreel, and both two were his wives. | After this Saul alway | sought David for to slay him. And the people called Zyphites told to Saul that David was| hid in the hill of Hachilah |which was on the after part of the wilderness, and Saul took with him three thousand | | | chosen men and followed | and sought David. David when he heard of the coming of Saul went into the place| whereas Saul was, and when | he was asleep he took one with him and went into the tent where Saul slept, and| Abner with him and all | his people. Then said Abishai to David: God hath put thine enemy this day in thine| hands, now I shall go and |smite him through with my spear, and then after that we shall have no need to dread | him. And David said |to Abishai: Slay him not; who may extend his hand into the anointed king of God and be | innocent? And David said |yet more: By the living God, but if God smite him or the days come that he shall die | or perish in battle, |God be merciful to me, as I shall not lay my hand on him that is The anointed of our Lord. | Now take the spear that |standeth at his head, and the cup of water, and let us go. David took the spear and the | cup and departed thence |and there was not one that saw them ne awaked, for they slept all. Then when David | was on the hill far from |them, David cried to the people and to Abner, saying: Abner, shalt not thou answer? And | Abner answered: Who art |thou that cryest and wakest the king? And David said to Abner: Art thou not a man | and there is none like |thee in Israel? why hast thou not therefore kept thy lord the king? There is one of the | people gone in to slay |the king thy lord; by the living Lord it is not good that ye do, but be ye worthy to die | because ye have not kept |your lord anointed of our Lord. Now look and see where the king's spear is, and | the cup of water that |stood at his head. Saul knew the voice of David and said: Is not this thy voice, my son | | | David? And David said: |It is my voice, my lord king. For what cause dost thou, my lord, pursue me thy | servant? what thing have |I done and what evil have I committed with my hand? Thou seest well I might have | slain thee if I would; God |judge between thee and me. And Saul said: I have sinned, return, my son; I shall | never hereafter do thee | harm ne evil, for thy soul is precious in my sight this day. It appeareth now that I| have done follily, and am |ignorant in many things. Then said David: Lo! here is the spear of the king, let a child | come fetch it, our Lord |shall reward to every man after his justice and faith. Our Lord hath this day brought | thee into my hands, and |yet I would not lay mine hand on him that is anointed of our Lord. And like as thy soul | is magnified this day in |my sight, so be my soul magnified in the sight of God and deliver me from all | anguish. Saul said then | to David: Blessed be thou, my son David. And David went then his way, and Saul| returned home again. And |David said in his heart: Sometime it might hap to me to fall and come into the hands of Saul, it is better I | flee from him and save | me in the land of the Philistines. And he went thence with six hundred men and came to | Achish king of Gath |and dwelled there. And when Saul understood that he was with Achish he ceased to seek | him. And Achish delivered |to David a town to dwell in named Ziklag. After this the Philistines gathered | and assembled much people |against Israel. And Saul assembled all Israel and came unto Gilboa; and when Saul saw al! the host | of the Philistines, his |heart dreaded and fainted sore, he cried for to have counsel of our Lord. And our Lord answered | | | him not, ne by swevens |ne by priests, ne by prophets. Then said Saul to his servants: Fetch to me a woman | having a phiton, otherwise | called a phitoness or a witch. And they said that there was such a woman in Endor.| Saul then changed his habit |and clothing, and did on other clothing, and went and two men with him, and | came to the woman by | night, and made her by her craft to raise Samuel. And Samuel said to Saul: Why hast | thou put me from my rest, | for to arise? And Saul said: I am coarted thereto, for the Philistines fight against me, | and God is gone from me, |and will not hear me, neither by prophets, ne by swevens. And Samuel said: What | askest thou of me when | God is gone from thee and gone unto David? God shall do to thee as he hath said to thee| by me, and shall cut thy realm |from thine hand, and shall give it to thy neighbour David. For thou hast not | obeyed his voice, ne |hast not done his commandment in Amalek; therefore thou shalt lose the battle and Israel | shall be overthrown. To-morrow |thou and thy children shall be with me, and our Lord shall suffer the children | of Israel to fall in the hands |of the Philistines. Anon then Saul fell down to the earth. The words of Samuel | made him afeard and there |was no strength in him, for he had eaten no bread of all that day, he was greatly | troubled. Then the phitoness |desired him to eat, and she slew a paschal lamb that she had, and dighted and set it | tofore him, and bread. |And when he had eaten he walked with his servants all that night. And on the morn | the Philistines assailed Saul |and them of Israel, and fought a great battle, and the men of Israel fled from the | | | face of the Philistines, |and many of them were slain in the mount of Gilboa. The Philistines smote in against | Saul and his sons, and slew |Jonathan and Abinadab, and Melchi-shua, sons of Saul. And all the burden of the | battle was turned on Saul, |and the archers followed him and wounded him sore. Then said Saul to his squire: | Pluck out thy sword |and slay me, that these men uncircumcised come not and, scorning, slay me; and his | squire would not for he |was greatly afeard. Then Saul took his sword and slew himself, which thing when his | squire saw, that is that Saul |was dead, he took his sword and fell on it and was dead with him. Thus was Saul | dead, and his three sons | and his squire, and all his men that day together. Then the children of Israel that were| thereabouts, and on that |other side of Jordan, seeing that the men of Israel fled, and that Saul and his three | sons were dead, left |their cities and fled. The Philistines came and dwelled there; and the next day the Philistines | went for to rifle and |pillage them that were dead, and they found Saul and his three sons Iying in the hill of | Gilboa. And they cut off |the head of Saul, and robbed him of his armour, and sent it into the land of the | Philistines all about, that |it might be showed in the temple of their idols, and unto the people; and set up | his arms in the temple |of Ashtaroth, and hung his body on the wall of Bethshan. And when the men that dwelt | they may remember God |and bless him in all time in truth and in all their virtue. Now therefore, my sons, | in Jabesh-Gilead saw what |the Philistines had done unto Saul, all the strongest men of them arose and went | all that night and took down | the bodies of Saul and of his sons from the wall of Bethshan and burnt them, and| took the bones and buried |them in the wood of Jabesh-Gilead and fasted seven days. Thus endeth the life of Saul which | was first king upon Israel, |and for disobedience of God's commandment was slain, and his heirs never reigned long after. | The History of David |Here followeth how David reigned after Saul, and governed Israel. Shortly taken out of the Bible, the most | historial matters and but little touched. |After the death of Saul David returned from the journey that he had against Amalek. For whilst David had been | out with Achish the king, |they of Amalek had been in Ziklag and taken all that was therein prisoners, and | robbed and carried away | with them the two wives of David. and had set fire and burnt the town. And when | David came again home |and saw the town burnt he pursued after, and by the conveying of one of them of | Amalek that was left by |the way sick, for to have his life he brought David upon the host of Amalek whereas they | sat and ate and drank. | And David smote on them with his meiny and slew down all that he found, and rescued | his wives and all the good |that they had taken, and took much more of them. And when he was come to Ziklag, | the third day after there |came one from the host of Saul, and told to David how that Israel had lost the battle, and | how they were fled, |and how Saul the king and Jonathan his son were slain. David said to the young | man that brought these tidings: |How knowest thou that Saul and Jonathan be dead? And he answered it was so | by adventure that I came | upon the mount of Gilboa, and Saul rested upon his spear, and the horsemen and the | chariots of the Philistines |approached to himward, and he looked behind him and saw me, and called me, and | said to me: Who art thou? |And I said I am an Amalekite, and then he said: Stand upon me and slay me, for I am | full of anguish, and yet |my soul is in me. And I then standing on him slew him, knowing well that he might | not live after the ruin. |And I took the diadem from his head, and the armylle from his arm, which I have | brought hither to thee, | my lord. David took and rent his vestment, and all the men that were him, and wailed and| sorrowed much the death | of Saul and Jonathan and of all the men of Israel, and fasted that day till even. And| David said to the young man: | Of whence art thou? And he said: I am the son of an Amalekite. And David said to| him: Why dreadedst thou |not to put thy hand forth to slay him that is anointed of God? David called one of | | | his men, and bade him | slay him. And he smote him and slew him. And David said: Thy blood be on thy head! | thine own mouth hath |spoken against thee, saying: I have slain Saul which was king anointed of our Lord. | David sorrowed and bewailed |much the death of Saul and of Jonathan. After this David counselled with our | Lord and demanded if he | should go in to one of the cities of Judah. And our Lord bade him go, and he ask| and because God hath | said thou shalt reign upon my people and be their governor, therefore we shall obey| thee. And all the seniors |of Israel came and did homage to David in Hebron, and anointed him king over them. | David was thirty years | old when he began to reign and he reigned forty years. He reigned in Hebron upon| Judah seven years and | six months, and in Jerusalem he reigned thirty-three years upon all Israel and Judah.| David then made him a |dwelling-place in the hill of Sion in Jerusalem And after this the Philistines made | war against him but he |oft overthrew them, and slew many of them, and made them tributary to him, and after | brought the ark of God |in Jerusalem, and set it in his house. After this yet the Philistines made war again unto | him and other kings were | aiding and helping them against David, whom David overcame and slew and put under.| And on a time when Joab |was out with his men of war Iying at a siege tofore a city, David was at home, and | walked in his chamber, |and as he looked out at a window he saw a fair woman wash her and bain her in | her chamber, which stood |against his house, and demanded of his servants who she was, and they said | | | she was Uriah's wife. He |sent for her and lay by her and gat her with child. And when David understood that she | was with child, he sent |letters to Joab and bade him to send home to him Uriah; and Joab sent Uriah to David, | and David demanded how |the host was ruled, and after bade him go home to his house and wash his feet. And | Uriah went thence, and | the king sent to him his dish with meat. Uriah would not go home, but lay before the| gate of the king's house |with other servants of the king's. And it was told to the king that Uriah went not home, | and then David said to | Uriah: Thou comest from a far way, why goest thou not home? And Uriah said to| David: The ark of God |and Israel and Judah be in the pavilions, and my lord Joab and the servants of thee, my | lord, lie on the ground, |and would ye that I should go to my house and eat and drink, and sleep with my wife? By | thy health and by the health |of my soul I shall not do so. Then David said to Uriah, Abide here then this night, | and to-morrow I shall deliver |thee. Uriah abode there that day and the next, and David made him eat tofore | him and made him drunk, |yet for all that he would not go home, but lay with the servants of David. Then on | the morn David wrote a | letter to Joab, that he should set Uriah in the weakest place of the battle and where most| jeopardy was, and that |he should be left there that he might be slain. And Uriah bare this letter to Joab, and it | was so done as David had | written, and Uriah was slain in the battle. And Joab sent word to David how they had| fought, and how Uriah |was slain and dead. When Uriah's wife heard that her husband was dead, she | mourned and wailed him; |and after the mourning David sent for her and wedded her, and she bare him a son. | And this that David had | committed on Uriah displeased greatly our Lord. Then our Lord sent Nathan the prophet| | | unto David, which, when |he came, said to him: There were two men dwelling in a city, that one rich and that other poor. The | rich man had sheep and |oxen right many, but the poor man had but one little sheep, which he bought and | nourished and grew with |his children, eating of his bread and drinking of his cup, and slept in his bosom. | She was to him as a daughter. |And on a time when a certain pilgrim came to the rich man, he, sparing his | own sheep and oxen to make |a feast to the pilgrim that was come to him, took the only sheep of the poor man | and made meat thereof to | his guest. David was wroth and said to Nathan: By the living God, the man that | hath so done is the child |of death, the man that hath so done shall yield therefor four times double. Then said | Nathan to David: Thou art |the same man that hath done this thing. This said the Lord God of Israel: I have | anointed thee king upon Israel, |and I have kept thee from the hand of Saul, and I have given to thee an house | to keep in thine household | and wives in thy bosom. I have given to thee the house of Israel and the house of| Judah, and if these be |small things I shall add an l give to thee much more and greater. Why hast thou therefore | despised the word of God | and hast done evil in the sight of our Lord? Thou hast slain Uriah with a sword, and| his wife hast thou taken | unto thy wife, and thou hast slain him with the sword of the sons of Ammon. | Therefore the sword shall | not go from thy house, world without end, forasmuch as thou hast despised me and| hast taken Uriah's wife |unto thy wife. This said our Lord: I shall raise evil against thee, and shall take thy | | | wives in thy sight and |give them to thy neighbour, and he shall lie with thy wives tofore thine eyes. Thou hast | done it privily, but I |shall make this to be done and open in the sight of all Israel. And then said David to Nathan: | Peccavi! I have sinned against |our Lord. Nathan said: Our Lord hath taken away thy sin, thou shalt not die, | but for as much as thou |hast made the enemy to blaspheme the name of God, therefore the son that is | born to thee shall die by |death. And Nathan returned to his house. And for this sin David made this psalm: | Miserere mei deus, which |is a psalm of mercy, for David did great penance for these sins of adultery and also of homicide. | For as I once was beyond | the sea riding in the company of a noble knight named Sir John Capons, and was also| doctor in both laws, and was | born in Malyorke, and had been viceroy and governor of Arragon and Catalonia,| and that time counsellor |unto the Duke of Burgundy, Charles, it happed we communed of the history of | David; and this said nobleman | told me that he had read that David did this penance following for these said| sins. That he dolved him | in the ground standing naked unto the head, so long that the worms began to creep in| his flesh, and made a verse |of this psalm Miserere, and then came out, and when he was whole thereof he went | in again and stood so |again as long as afore is said and made the second verse, and so as many times he was | dolven in the earth as be |verses in the said psalm of Miserere mei deus, and every time was abiding therein | till he felt the worms |creep in his flesh. This was a great penance and a token of a great repentance, for there be | | | in the psalm twenty-one |verses, and twenty-one times he was dolven. Thus this nobleman told me, riding between | the town of Ghent in Flanders |and the town of Brussels in Brabant. Therefore God took away this sin, and forgave it him, | but the son that she brought |forth died. And after this Bathsheba, that had been Uriah's wife, conceived and | brought forth another son |named Solomon, which was well-beloved of God, and after David, Solomon was king.| After this David had much |war and trouble and anger, in so much that on a time Amnon, oldest son of David, | loved Thamar his sister. |This Thamar was Absalom's sister by the mother's side, and Amnon forced and lay by | her, and when he had done |his pleasure, he hated her, and threw her out of his chamber, and she complained | unto Absalom. David knew | hereof, and was right sorry for it, but he would not rebuke his son Amnon for it, for| he loved him because he |was his first begotten son. Absalom hated Amnon ever after, and when Absalom on | a time did do shear his sheep | he prayed all his brethren to come eat with him, and made them a feast like a| king's feast. At which feast | he did do slay his brother Amnon; and anon it was told to the King David that| Absalom had slain all the king's | sons. Wherefore the king was in great heaviness and sorrow, but anon after it| was told him that there |was no more slain but Amnon, and the other sons came home. And Absalom fled into | Geshur, and was there three |years, and durst not come home. And after by the moyen of Joab he was sent for, | and came into Jerusalem, |but yet he might not come in his father the king's presence, and dwelled there two | | | years, and might not see | the King his father. This Absalom was the fairest man that ever was, for from the| sole of his foot unto |his head there was not a spot; he had so much hair on his head that it grieved him to bear, | wherefore it was shorn off |once a year, it weighed two hundred shekels of good weight. Then when he abode | so long that he might |not come to his father's presence he sent for Joab to come speak with him, and he would | not come. He sent again |for him and he came not. Then Absalom said to his servants: Know ye Joab's field that | lieth by my field? They said | yea. Go ye, said he, and set fire in the barley that is therein, and burn it. And Joab's| servants came and told | to Joab that Absalom had set fire on his corn. Then Joab came to Absalom and said: Why | hast thou set fire on my |corn! And he said, I have sent twice to thee, praying thee to come to me that I might | send thee to the king, and |that thou shouldst say to him why I came from Geshur; it had been better for me for to | have abiden there. I pray | thee that I may come to his presence and see his visage, and if he remember my| wickedness let him slay me. |Joab went in to the King and told to him all these words. Then was Absalom | called, and entered in to | the king, and he fell down and worshipped the king, and the king kissed him. After this|Absalom did do make for |himself chariots and horsemen and fifty men for to go before him, and walked among | the tribes of Israel; and |greeted and saluted them, taking them by the hand, and kissed them, by which he gat to | him the hearts of the people; |and said to his father that he had avowed to make sacrifice to God in Hebron, and | | | his father gave him leave. | And when he was there he gathered people to him, and made himself king, and did| do cry that all men should | obey and wait on him as king of Israel. When David heard this he was sore abashed| and was fain to flee out |of Jerusalem. And Absalom came with his people and entered into Jerusalem into | his father's house, and lay |by his father's concubines, and after pursued his father to depose him. And David | ordained his people and battle |against him, and sent Joab, prince of his host, against Absalom, and divided | his host into three parts, | and would have gone with them, but Joab counselled that he should not go to the | battle whatsomever happed, | and then David bade them to save his son Absalom. And they went forth and fought, and Absalom| with his host was overthrown | and put to flight. And as Absalom fled upon his mule he came under an oak, and his hair| flew about a bough of the |tree and held so fast that Absalom hung by his hair, and the mule ran forth. There | came one to Joab and told |him how that Absalom hung by his hair on a bough of an oak, and Joab said: Why | hast thou not slain him? | The man said: God forbid that I should set hand on the king's son; I heard the king say:| keep my son Absalom alive |and slay him not. Then Joab went and took three spears, and fixed them in the heart | of Absalom as he hung |on the tree by his hair, and yet after this ten young men, squires of Joab, ran and slew | him. Then Joab trumped |and blew the retreat, and retained the people that they should not pursue the | people flying. And they |took the body of Absalom and cast it in a great pit, and laid on him a great stone. And | | | when David knew that his |son was slain, he made great sorrow and said: O my son Absalom, my son Absalom, | who shall grant to me that | I may die for thee, my son Absalom, Absalom my son! It was told to Joab that the| king wept and sorrowed the | death of his son Absalom, and all their victory was turned into sorrow and wailing,| in so much that the people |eschewed to enter into the city. Then Joab entered into the king and said: Thou | hast this day discouraged | the cheer of all thy servants because they have saved thy life, and the lives of thy| sons and daughters, of thy |wives and of thy concubines, thou lovest them that hate thee, and hatest them that | love thee, and showest |well this day that thou settest little by thy dukes and servants; and truly I know now | well that if Absalom had |lived and all we thy servants had been slain, thou haddest been pleased. Therefore, | arise now and come forth |and satisfy the people; or else I swear to thee by the good lord that there shall not one | of thy servants abide with |thee till tomorrow, and that shall be worse to thee than all the harms and evils that | ever yet fell to thee. | Then David the king arose and sat in the gate, and anon it was shown to all the people that| the king sat in the gate. |And then all the people came in tofore the king, and they of Israel that had been with | Absalom fled into their |tabernacles, and after came again unto David when they knew that Absalom was dead. | And after, one Sheba, |a cursed man, rebelled and gathered people against David. Against whom Joab with | the host of David pursued, |and drove him unto a city which he besieged, and by the means of a woman of the | | | same city Sheba's head |was smitten off and delivered to Joab over the wall, and so the city was saved, and Joab | pleased. After this David |called Joab, and bade him number the people of Israel, and so Joab walked | through all the tribes | of Israel, from Dan to Beersheba, and over Jordan and all the country, and there were| founder in Israel eight |hundred thousand strong men that were able to fight and to draw sword, and of the | tribe of Judah fifty |thousand fighting men. And after that the people was numbered, the heart of David was | smitten by our Lord and |was heavy, and said: I have sinned greatly in this deed, but I pray the Lord to take | away the wickedness of thy | servant, for I have done follily. David rose on the morn early, and the word of| our Lord came to Gad |the prophet saying: that he should go to David and bid him choose one of three things that | he should say to him. |When Gad came to David he said that he should choose whether he would have seven | years hunger in his land, | or three months he should flee his adversaries and enemies, or to have three days| pestilence. Of these three |God biddeth thee choose which thou wilt; now advise thee and conclude what I | shall answer to our Lord. |David said to Gad: I am constrained to a great thing, but it is better for me to put | me in the hands of our Lord, | for his mercy is much more than in men, and so he chose pestilence.| Then our Lord sent pestilence |the time constitute, and there died of the people from Dan to Beersheba seventy | thousand men. And when | the angel extended his hand upon Jerusalem for to destroy it, our Lord was merciful | | | upon the affliction, and |said to the angel so smiting: It sufficeth now, withdraw thy hand. David said to our | Lord when he saw the angel |smiting the people: I am he that have sinned and done wickedly, what have these | sheep done? I beseech |thee that thy hand turn upon me and upon the house of my father. Then came Gad to | David and bade him make | an altar in the same place where he saw the angel; and he bought the place, and | made the altar, and offered |sacrifices unto our Lord, and our Lord was merciful, and the plague ceased in Israel. | David was old and feeble |and saw that his death approached, and ordained that his son Solomon should | reign and be king after him. |Howbeit that Adonijah his son took on him to be king during David's life. For | which cause Bathsheba and |Nathan came to David, and tofore them he said that Solomon should be king, and | ordained that he should |be set on his mule by his prophets Nathan, Zadok the priest and Benaiah, and | brought in to Sion. | And there Zadok the priest and Nathan the prophet anointed him king upon Israel and| blew in a trump and said: |Live the King Solomon. And from thence they brought him into Jerusalem and set | him upon his father's seat |in his father's throne, and David worshipped him in his bed, and said: Blessed be | the Lord God of Israel |that hath suffered me to see my son in my throne and seat. And then Adonijah and all | they that were with him |were afeard, and dreading Solomon ran away, and so ceased Adonijah. The days of | David approached fast | that he should die, and did do call Solomon before him, and there he commanded him| to keep the commandments |of our Lord and walk in his ways, and to observe his ceremonies, his precepts and | his judgments, as it is written |in the law of Moses, and said: Our Lord confirm thee in thy reign, and send to | thee wisdom to rule it well. |And when David had thus counselled and commanded him to do justice and keep | God's law, he blessed |him and died, and was buried with his fathers. This David was an holy man and made the | holy psalter, which is an |holy book and is contained therein the old law and the new law. He was a great | prophet, for he prophesied | the coming of Christ, his nativity, his passion, and resurrection, and also his| ascension, and was great | with God, yet God would not suffer him to build a temple for him, for he had shed | man's blood. But God | said to him, his son that should reign after him should be a man peaceable, and he| should build the temple |to God. And when David had reigned forty years king of Jerusalem, over Judah and | Israel, he died in good mind, |and was buried with his fathers in the city of David. The History of Solomon. | After David, reigned Solomon |his son, which was in the beginning a good man and walked in the ways and laws | of God. And all the kings |about him made peace with him and was king confirmed, obeyed and peaceable in | his possession, and according |to his father's commandment did justice. First on Joab that had been | prince of his father's host, | because he slew two good men by treason slay him not, and contrary said that| other woman: Let it not |be given to me ne to thee, but let it be divided. The king then answered and said: Give | the living child to this woman, |and let it not be slain; this is verily the mother. All Israel heard how wisely the | king had given this sentence |and dreaded him, seeing that the wisdom of God was in him in deeming of rightful dooms. | After this Solomon sent | his messengers to divers kings for cedar trees and for workmen, for to make and build a | temple unto our Lord. |Solomon was rich and glorious, and all the realms from the river of the ends of the | Philistines unto the end |of Egypt were accorded with him, and offered to him gifts and to serve him all the | days of his life. Solomon |had daily for the meat of his household thirty measures, named chores, of corn, and | sixty of meal, ten fat oxen, |and twenty oxen of pasture and an hundred wethers, without venison that was | taken, as harts, goats, |bubals, and other flying fowls and birds. He obtained all the region that was from Tiphsa | | | unto Azza, and had peace | with all the kings of all the realms that were in every part round about him. In that| time Israel and Judah dwelled |without fear and dread, every each under his vine and fig tree from Dan unto | Beersheba. And Solomon had | forty thousand racks for the horses of his carts, chariots and cars, and twelve | thousand for horses to ride | on, by which prefects brought necessary things for the table of king Solomon,| with great diligence in |their time. God gave to Solomon much wisdom and prudence in his heart, like to the | gravel that is in the sea-side, |and the sapience and wisdom of Solomon passed and went tofore the | sapience of all them of |the Orient and of Egypt, and he was the wisest of all men, and so he was named. He | spake three thousand parables, | and five thousand songs, and disputed upon all manner trees and virtue of them,| from the cedar that is in | Lebanon unto the hyssop that groweth on the wall, and discerned the properties of| beasts, fowls, reptiles and | fishes, and there came people from all regions of the world for to hear the wisdom of Solomon.| And Solomon sent letters |to Hiram, king of Tyre, for to have his men to cut cedar trees with his servants, and he | would yield to them their | hire and meed, and let him wit how that he would build and edify a temple to our Lord.| And Hiram sent to him |that he should have all that he desired, and sent to him cedar trees and other wood. | And Solomon sent to him |corn in great number, and Solomon and Hiram confederated them together in love | and friendship. Solomon chose |out workmen of all Israel the number of thirty thousand men of whom he | | | sent to Lebanon ten thousand |every month, and when ten thousand went the others came home, and so two | months were they at home, |and Adonias was overseer and commander on them. Solomon had seventy | thousand men that did | nothing but bear stone and mortar and other things to the edifying of the temple,| and were bearers of burdens | only, and he had eighty thousand of hewers of stone and masons in the| mountain, without the prefects |and masters, which were three thousand three hundred that did nothing but | command and oversee them | that wrought. Solomon commanded the workmen to make square stones, great | and precious, for to lay |in the foundament, which the masons of Israel and masons of Hiram hewed, and the | carpenters made ready the timber. |Then began Solomon the temple to our Lord, in the fourth year of his reign he | began to build the temple. |The house that he builded had seventy cubits in length, and twenty cubits in | breadth, and thirty in height, |and the porch tofore the temple was twenty cubits long after the measure of the | breadth of the temple, and | had ten cubits of breadth tofore the face of the temple, and for to write the| curiosity and work of |the temple, and the necessaries, the tables and cost that was done in gold, silver and | latten, it passeth my cunning |to express and English them. Ye that be clerks may see it in the Second Book | of Kings and the Second |Book of Paralipomenon. It is wonder to hear the costs and expenses that was made in | that temple, but I pass |over. It was on making seven years, and his palace was thirteen years ere it was | finished. He made in the |temple an altar of pure gold, and a table to set on the loaves of proposition of gold, | five candlesticks of gold |on the right side and five on the left side, and many other things, and took all the | | | vessels of gold and silver |that his father David had sanctified and hallowed, and brought them into the | treasury of the house of our |Lord. After this he assembled all the noblest and greatest of birth of them | of Israel, with the princes |of the tribes and dukes of the families, for to bring the Ark of God from the city of | David, Sion, into the temple. | And the priests and Levites took the Ark and bare it and all the vessels of| the sanctuary that were in | the tabernacle. King Solomon, with all the multitude of the children that | were there, went tofore |the Ark and offered sheep and oxen without estimation and number. | And the priests set the Ark |in the house of our Lord in the oracle of the temple, in sancta sanctorum, under the | wings of cherubim. In the |ark was nothing but the two tables of Moses of stone which Moses had put in. And | then Solomon blessed our |Lord tofore all the people, and thanked him that he had suffered him to make an | house unto his name, and |besought our Lord that he whosomever prayed our Lord for any petition in that | temple, that he of his mercy | would hear him and be merciful to him. And our Lord appeared to him when the| edifice was accomplished perfectly, |and said to Solomon: I have heard thy prayer and thine oration that | thou hast prayed tofore me. |I have sanctified and hallowed this house that thou hast edified for to put my | name therein for evermore, |and my eyes and heart shall be thereon always. And if thou walk before me like as | thy father walked in the |simplicity of heart and in equity, and wilt do all that I have commanded thee, and | | | keep my judgments and laws, |I shall set the throne of thy reign upon Israel evermore, like as I have said to thy | father David, saying: There |shall not be taken away a man of thy generation from the reign and seat of Israel. | If ye avert and turn from me, |ye and your sons, not following ne keeping my commandments and | ceremonies that I have showed |tofore you, but go and worship strange gods, and honour them, I shall cast | away Israel from the face |of the earth that I have given to them, and the temple that I have hallowed to my name, l | shall cast it away from my |sight. And it shall be a fable and proverb, and thy house an example shall be to all | people; every man that shall | go thereby shall be abashed and astonied, and shall say: Why hath God done thus to| this land and to thy house? |And they shall answer: For they have forsaken their Lord God that brought them out | of the land of Egypt, and |have followed strange gods, and them adored and worshipped, and therefore God | hath brought on them all |this evil: here may every man take ensample how perilous and dreadful it is to break | the commandment of God. | | Twenty year after that Solomon |had edified the temple of God and his house, and finished it perfectly, Hiram | the king of Tyre went |for to see towns that Solomon had given to him, and they pleased him not. Hiram had sent | to king Solomon an |hundred and twenty besants of gold, which he had spent on the temple and his house, | and on the wall of Jerusalem |and other towns and places that he had made. Solomon was rich and glorious that | | | the fame ran, of his sapience |and wisdom and of his building and dispence in his house, through the world, | in so much that the queen | of Sheba came from far countries to see him and to tempt him in demands and | questions. And she came |into Jerusalem with much people and riches, with camels charged with aromatics | and gold infinite. And she |came and spake to king Solomon all that ever she had in her heart. And | Solomon taught her in all |that ever she purposed tofore him. She could say nothing but that the king answered | to her, there was nothing |hid from him. The queen of Sheba then seeing all the wisdom of Solomon, the | house that he had builded, | and the meat and service of his table, the habitacles of his servants, the order of the| ministers, their clothing and |array, his butlers and officers, and the sacrifices that he offered in the house | of our Lord, when she saw |all these things, she had no spirit to answer, but she said to king Solomon: The | word is true that I heard in my |land, of thy words and thy wisdom, and I believed not them that told it to me, | unto the time that I myself |came and have seen it with mine eyes, and I have now well seen and proved that the | half was not told to me. |Thy sapience is more, and thy works also, than the tidings that I heard. Blessed be thy | servants, and blessed be |these that stand always tofore thee and hear thy sapience and wisdom, and thy Lord | God be blessed whom thou |hast pleased, and hath set thee upon the throne of Israel, for so much as God of | Israel loveth thee and hath |ordained thee a king for to do righteousness and justice. She gave then to the king | | | an hundred and twenty |besants of gold, many aromatics, and gems precious. There were never seen tofore so | many aromatics ne so sweet | odours smelling as the queen of Sheba gave to king Solomon.| King Solomon gave to the |queen of Sheba all that ever she desired and demanded of him, and after returned | into her country and land. |The weight of pure gold that was offered every year to Solomon was six hundred and | sixty-six talents of gold, |except that that the merchants offered, and all they that sold, and all the kings of | Arabia and dukes of that land. |Solomon made two hundred shields of the purest gold and set them in the | house of Lebanon; he made |him also a throne of ivory which was great and was clad with gold, which had six | grees or steps, which was |richly wrought with two lions of gold holding the seat above, and twelve small lions | standing upon the steps, |on every each twain, here and there. There was never such a work in no realm. And all | the vessels that king Solomon |drank of were of gold, and the ceiling of the house of Lebanon in which his | shields of gold were in was |of the most pure gold. Silver was of no price in the days of king Solomon, for the | navy of the king, with the |navy of Hiram went in three years once into Tarsis and brought them thence gold and |silver, teeth of elephants |and great riches. The king Solomon was magnified above all the kings of the world | in riches and wisdom, and | all the world desired to see the cheer and visage of Solomon, and to hear his| wisdom that God had given |to him. Every man brought to him gifts, vessels of gold and silver, clothes and | | | armour for war, aromatics, |horses and mules every year. Solomon gathered together chariots and horsemen; he | had a thousand four hundred |chariots and cars, and twelve thousand horsemen, and were lodged in small | cities and towns about Jerusalem |by the king. There was as great abundance and plenty of gold and silver in | those days in Jerusalem | as stones or sycamores that grow in the field, and horses were brought to him from | Egypt and Chao. What shall |I all day write of the riches, glory and magnificence of king Solomon? It was so | great that it cannot be expressed, | for there was never none like to him, ne never shall none come after him | like unto him. He made the |book of the parables containing thirty-one chapters, the book of the | Canticles, the book of Ecclesiastes, |containing twelve chapters, and the book of Sapience containing nineteen | chapters. This king Solomon |loved overmuch women, and specially strange women of other sects; as king | Pharaoh's daughters and many |other of the gentiles, of whom God had commanded to the children of Israel that | they should not have to do |with them, ne they with their daughters, for God said certainly they should turn your | hearts to serve their gods. |To such women Solomon was coupled with most burning love. He had seven hundred | wives which were as queens, |and three hundred concubines, and these women turned his heart. For | when he was old he so doted |and loved them that they made him honour their strange gods, and worshipped | Ashtareth, Chemosh and Moloch, |idols of Zidonia, of Moabites, and Ammonites, and made to them | | | Tabernacles for to please his |wives and concubines, wherefore God was wroth with him, and said to him: | Because thou hast not observed | my precepts and my commandments that I commanded thee, I shall cut thy| kingdom and divide it and |give it to thy servant but not in thy day, I shall not do it for love that I had to David | thy father; but from the hand |of thy son I shall cut it but not all, I shall reserve to him one tribe for David's love, | and Jerusalem that I have chosen. |And after this divers kings became adversaries to Solomon, and was never in peace after. | It is said, but I find it not in |the Bible, that Solomon repented him much of this sin of idolatry and did much | penance therefor, for he | let him be drawn through Jerusalem and beat himself with rods and scourges, that| the blood flowed in the |sight of all the people. He reigned upon all Israel in Jerusalem forty years, and | died and was buried with |his fathers in the city of David, and Rehoboam his son reigned after him. | The History of Rehoboam. |After Solomon, reigned his son Rehoboam. He came to Sichem and thither came all the people for to | ordain him king. Jeroboam |and all the multitude of Israel spake to Rehoboam, and said: Thy father set on us an hard yoke | and great impositions, now | thou hast not so much need, therefore less it and minish it, and ease us of the great| and hard burden and we |shall serve thee. Rehoboam answered and said: Go ye and come again the third day | and ye shall have an answer. |When the people was departed, Rehoboam made a counsel of the seniors and | old men that had assisted |his father Solomon whiles he lived, and said to them: What say ye? and counsel me | | | that I may answer to the |people, which said to Rehoboam: If thou wilt obey and agree to this people, | and agree to their petition, |and speak fair and friendly to them, they shall serve thee always. But Rehoboam | forsook the counsel of the old |men, and called the young men that were of his age, and asked of them | counsel. And the young men | that had been nourished with him bade him say to the people in this wise: Is not| my finger greater than the back | of my father? If my father hath laid on you a heavy burden, I shall add and| put more to your burden; | my father beat you with scourges, and I shall beat you with scorpions. The third| day after, Jeroboam and |all the people came to Rehoboam to have their answer, and Rehoboam left the | counsel of the old men, and |said to them like as the young men had counselled him. And anon the people of | Israel forsook Rehoboam, |and of twelve tribes, there abode with him no more but the tribe of Judah and | Benjamin. And the other ten |tribes departed and made Jeroboam their king, and never returned unto the house | of David after unto this day. |And thus for sin of Solomon, and because Rehoboam would not do after | the counsel of the old men, |but was counselled by young men, the ten tribes of Israel forsook him, and | departed from Jerusalem, |and served Jeroboam, and ordained him king upon Israel. Anon after this, | Jeroboam fell to idolatry |and great division was ever after between the kings of Judah and the kings of Israel. | And so reigned divers kings |each after other in Jerusalem after Rehoboam, and in Israel after Jeroboam. | | | And here I leave all the history |and make an end of the book of Kings for this time etc. For ye that list to know | how every king reigned | after other, ye may find it in the first chapter of Saint Matthew which is read on| Christmas day in the morning | tofore Te Deum, which is the genealogy of our Lady. Here followeth the History of Job,| read on the first Sunday of September. | There was a man in the land of Uz named Job, and this man was simple, rightful and dreading God,| and going from all evil. |He had seven sons and three daughters, and his possession was seven thousand sheep, three | thousand camels, five hundred |yoke of oxen, five hundred asses, and his family and household passing | much and great. He was |a great man and rich among all the men of the orient. And his sons went daily each to | other house making great |feasts, ever each one as his day came, and they sent for their three sisters for to eat | and drink with them. |When they had thus feasted each other, Job sent to them and blessed and sanctified them, | and rising every day early, | he offered sacrifices for them all, saying: Lest my children sin and bless not God in| their hearts. And thus did Job every day. | On a day when the sons of God were tofore our Lord, Satan came and was among them, to whom our | Lord said: Whence comest |thou? Which answered, I have gone round about the earth and through walked it. Our | Lord said to him: Hast thou |not considered my servant Job, that there is none like unto him in the earth, a man | simple, rightful, dreading God, | and going from evil? To whom Satan answered: Doth Job dread God idly? If so | were that thou overthrewest |him, his house and all his substance round about, he should soon forsake thee. | Thou hast blessed the work |of his hands, and his possession is increased much in the earth, but stretch | out thy hand a little, and |touch all that he hath in possession, and he shall soon grudge and not bless thee. | Then said our Lord to Satan: |Lo ! all that which he owneth and hath in possession, I will it be in thy hand | and power, but on his person |ne body set not thy hand. Satan departed and went from the face of our Lord. On a | day as his sons and daughters |ate, and drank wine, in the house of the oldest brother, there came a messenger | to Job which said: The oxen |eared in the plough and the ass pastured in the pasture by them, and the men of | Sabea ran on them, and smote |thy servants, and slew them with of sword, and I only escaped for to come and | to show it to thee. And whiles |he spake came another and said: The fire of God fell down from heaven and | hath burnt thy sheep and |servants and consumed them, and I only escaped for to come and show it to thee. And | yet whiles he spake came |another and said: The Chaldees made three hosts and have enveigled thy | camels and taken them, and |have slain thy servants with sword, and I only escaped for to bring thee word. And | yet he speaking another |entered in and said: Thy sons and daughters, drinking wine in the house of thy first | begotten son, suddenly came | a vehement wind from the region of desert and smote the four corners of the house, | which falling oppressed thy |children, and they be all dead, and I only fled for to tell it to thee. Then Job | arose, and cut his coat, |and did do shave his head, and falling down to the ground, worshipped and adored | God, saying: I am come |out naked from the womb of my mother and naked shall return again thereto. Our Lord | hath given and our Lord hath |taken away, as it hath pleased our Lord, so it is done, the name of our Lord be | blessed. In all these things |Job sinned not with his lips, ne spake nothing follily against our Lord, but took it all patiently. | After this it was so that |on a certain day when the children of God stood tofore our Lord, Satan came and | stood among them, and God |said to him: Whence comest thou? To whom Satan answered: I have gone | round the earth, and walked |through it. And God said to Satan, Hast thou not considered my servant Job that | there is no man like him in the earth, | a man simple, rightful, dreading God, and going from evil, and yet| retaining his innocency? Thou |hast moved me against him that I should put him to affliction without cause. To| | | whom Satan said: Skin |for skin, and all that ever a man hath he shall give for his soul. Nevertheless, stretch | thine hand and touch |his mouth and his flesh, and thou shalt see that he shall not bless thee. Then said God to | Satan: I will well that his body |be in thine hand, but save his soul and his life. Then Satan departed from the | face of our Lord and smote |Job with the worst blotches and blains from the plant of his foot unto the top of his | head, which was made like |a lazar and was cast out and sat on the dunghill. Then came his wife to him and said: | Yet thou abidest in thy simpleness, | forsake thy God and bless him no more, and go die. Then Job said to her:| Thou hast spoken like a |foolish woman; if we have received and taken good things of the hand of our Lord, | why shall we not sustain |and suffer evil things? In all these things Job sinned not with his lips. Then three | men that were friends of Job, |hearing what harm was happed and come to Job, came ever each one from his | place to him, that one was |named Eliphas the Temanite, another Bildad the Shuhite, and the third, Zophar | Naamathite. And when they |saw him from far they knew him not, and crying they wept. They came for to comfort | him, and when they considered |his misery they tare their clothes and cast dust on their heads, and sat by him | seven days and seven nights, | and no man spake to him a word, seeing his sorrow. Then after that Job and they | talked and spake together |of his sorrow and misery, of which S. Gregory hath made a great book called: The | morals of S. Gregory, which | is a noble book and a great work. But I pass over all the matters and return| | | unto the end, how God |restored Job again to prosperity. It was so that when these three friends of Job had been long with Job, | and had said many things |each of them to Job, and Job again to them, our Lord was wroth with these three men | and said to them: Ye have |not spoken rightfully, as my servant Job hath spoken. Take ye therefore seven bulls | and seven wethers and go |to my servant Job and offer ye sacrifice for you. Job my servant shall pray for you. I | shall receive his prayer |and shall take his visage. They went forth and did as our Lord commanded them. And | our Lord beheld the visage | of Job, and saw his penance when he prayed for his friends. And our Lord added to| Job double of all that Job |had possessed. All his brethren came to him, and all his sisters, and all they | that tofore had known him, |and ate with him in his house, and moved their heads upon him, and comforted | him upon all the evil that | God had sent to him. And each of them gave him a sheep and a gold ring for his ears.| Our Lord blessed more Job |in his last days than he did in the beginning. And he had then after fourteen | thousand sheep, six thousand |camels, one thousand yoke of oxen, one thousand asses. And he had seven | sons and three daughters. |And the first daughter's name was Jemima, the second Kezia, and the third Keren | happuch. There was nowhere | found in the world so fair women as were the daughters of Job. Their father Job| gave to them heritage among | their brethren, and thus Job by his patience gat so much love of God, that he | was restored double of all his |losses. And Job lived after, one hundred and forty years, and saw his sons and | the sons of his sons unto |the fourth generation, and died an old man, and full of days. | Here followeth the history of | Tobit which is read the third Sunday of September. Tobit of the tribe and of the city of Nephthali,| | | which is in the overparts | of Galilee upon Aser, after the way that leadeth men westward, having on his left side the city of| Sepheth, was taken in the |days of Salmanazar, King of the Assyrians, and put in captivity, yet he forsook not | the way of truth, but |all that he had or could get he departed daily with his brethren of his kindred which | were prisoners with him. | And how be it that he was youngest in all the tribe of Nephthali yet did he nothing| childishly. Also when all |other went unto the golden calves that Jeroboam, King of Israel had made, this | Tobit only fled the fellowship |of them all, and went to Jerusalem into the temple of our Lord. And there he | adored and worshipped the |Lord God of Israel, offering truly his first fruits and tithes in so much that in the | third year he ministered |unto proselytes and strangers all the tithe. Such things and other like to these he | observed whilst he was |a child, and when he came to age and was a man he took a wife named Anna, of his | tribe, and begat on her a son, |naming after his own name Tobias, whom from his childhood he taught to dread | God and abstain him from all sin. |Then after when he was brought by captivity with his wife and his son into | the city of Nineveh |with all his tribe, and when all ate of the meats of the Gentiles and Paynims, this Tobit kept | his soul clean and was |never defouled in the meats of them. And because of remembered our Lord in all his | heart, God gave him grace |to be in the favour of Salmanazar the king which gave to him power to go | where he would. Having |liberty to do what he would, he went then to all them in captivity and gave to them | | | warnings of health. When |he came on a time in Rages, city of the Jews, he had such gifts as he had been | honoured with of the king, |ten besants of silver. And when he saw one Gabael being needy which was of his | tribe, he lent him the said |weight of silver upon his obligation. Long time after this when Salmanazar the | king was dead, Sennacherib |his son reigned for him, and hated, and loved not, the children of Israel. And | Tobit went unto all his | kindred and comforted them, and divided to every each of them as he might of his| faculties and goods. He |fed the hungry and gave to the naked clothes, and diligently he buried the dead men and them that | were slain. After this |when Sennacherib returned, fleeing the plague from the Jewry, that God had sent him for his | blasphemy, and he, being |wroth, slew many of the children of Israel, and Tobit always buried the bodies of | them, which was told to |the king, which commanded to slay him, and took away all his substance. Tobit then | with his wife and his | son hid him and fled away all naked, for many loved him well. After this, forty-five| days, the sons of the king | slew the king, and then returned Tobit unto his house, and all his faculties and| goods were restored to |him again. After this on a high festival day of our Lord when that Tobit had a good | dinner in his house. |he said to his son: Go and fetch to us some of our tribe dreading God, that they may come | and eat with us. And |he went forth and anon he returned telling to his father that one of the children of Israel was | slain and lay dead in |the street. And anon he leapt out of his house, leaving his meat, and fasting came to the | | | body, took it and bare it |in to his house privily, that he might secretly bury it when the sun went down. And | when he had hid the corpse, |he ate his meat with wailing and dread, remembering that word that our Lord | said by Amos the prophet: |The day of your feast shall be turned into lamentation and wailing. And when the sun | was gone down he went | and buried him. All his neighbours reproved and chid him, saying for this cause| they were commanded to |be slain, and unnethe thou escapedst the commandment of death, and yet thou | buriest dead men. But Tobit, |more dreading God than the king, took up the bodies of dead men and hid them | in his house, and at midnight | he buried them. It happed on a day after this that when he was weary of burying| dead men, he came home |and laid him down by a wall and slept. And from a swallow's nest above there fell | down hot dung of them |on his eyes, and he was thereof blind. This temptation suffered God to fall to him, that | it should be an example |to them that shall come after him of his patience, like as it was of holy Job. For from | his infancy he dreaded ever |God and kept his precepts and was not grudging against God for his blindness, but | he abode immovable in | the dread of God, giving and rendering thankings to God all the days of his life. For| like as Job was assailed |so was Tobit assailed of his kinsmen, scorning him and saying to him: Where is now | thy hope and reward for |which thou gavest thy alms and madest sepulchres? Tobit blamed them for such words, | saying to them: In no wise |say ye not so, for we be the sons of holy men, and we abide that life that God shall | | | give to them that never shall |change their faith from him. Anna his wife went daily to the work of weaving, | and got by the labour of her |hands their livelihood as much as she might. Whereof on a day she gat a kid and | brought it home. When Tobit |heard the voice of the kid bleating, he said: See that it be not stolen, yield it again | to the owner, for it is not | lawful for us to eat ne touch anything that is stolen. To that his wife all angry| answered: Now manifestly |and openly is thine hope made vain, and thy alms lost. And thus with such and | like words she chid him. |Then Tobit began to sigh and began to pray our Lord with tears saying: O Lord, thou | art rightful, and all thy dooms |be true, and all thy ways be mercy, truth, and righteousness. And now, Lord, | remember me, and take |now no vengeance of my sins, ne remember not my trespasses, ne the sins of my fathers. | For we have not obeyed |thy commandments, therefore we be betaken in to direption, captivity, death, fables, | and into reproof and shame to | all nations in which thou hast dispersed us. And now, Lord, great be thy | judgments, for we have not |done according to thy precepts, ne have not walked well tofore thee. And now, | Lord, do to me after thy |will, and command my spirit to be received in peace, it is more expedient to me to die | than to live. The same |day it happed that Sara, daughter of Raguel in the city of Medes, that she was rebuked and heard | reproof of one of the handmaidens |of her father. For she had been given to seven men, and a devil named | Asmodeus slew them as |soon as they would have gone to her; therefore the maid reproved her saying: We shall | never see son ne daughter |of thee on the earth, thou slayer of thy husbands. Wilt thou slay me as thou hast | slain seven men? With |this voice and rebuke she went up in the upperest cubicle of the house. And three days | and three nights she ate |not, ne drank not, but was continually in prayers beseeching God for to deliver her | | | from this reproof and shame. |And on the third day, when she had accomplished her prayer, blessing our Lord she | said: Blessed be thy name, | God of our fathers, for when thou art wroth thou shalt do mercy and in a time of| tribulation thou forgivest sins |to them that call to thee. Unto thee, Lord, I convert my visage, and unto thee I | address mine eyes. I ask | and require thee that thou assoil me from the bond of the reproof and shame, or| certainly upon the earth keep | me. Thou knowest well, Lord, that I never desired man, but I have kept clean my| soul from all concupiscence. | I never meddled me with players, ne never had part of them that walk in lightness.| I consented for to take an |husband with thy dread, but I never gave consent to take one with my lust. Or I was | unworthy to them or haply |they were unworthy to me, or haply thou hast conserved and kept me for some other | man. Thy counsel is not |in man's power. This knoweth every man that worshippeth thee, for the life of him if it | be in probation shall be |crowned, and if it be in tribulation it shall be delivered, and if it be in | correction, it shall be lawful |to come to mercy. Thou hast none delectation in our perdition, for after tempest | thou makest tranquillity, and |after weeping and shedding of tears thou bringest in exultation and joy. | Thy name, God of Israel | be blessed, world without end. In that same time were the prayers of them both heard in| the sight of the glory | of the high God. And the holy angel of God, Raphael, was sent to heal them both. Of| whom in one time were |the prayers recited in the sight of our Lord God. Then when Tobit supposed his prayers | | | to be heard that he might |die, he called to him his son Tobias, and said to him: Hear, my son, the words of my | mouth, and set them in |thy heart as a fundament. When God shall take away my soul, bury my body, and thou | shalt worship thy mother |all the days of her life, thou owest to remember what and how many perils she hath | suffered for thee in her |womb. When she shall have accomplished the time of her life, bury her by me. All | the days of thy life have |God in thy mind, and beware that thou never consent to sin, ne to disobey ne break | the commandments of God. |Of thy substance do alms, and turn never thy face from any poor man, so do that | God turn not his face from |thee. As much as thou mayest, be merciful, if thou have much good give | abundantly, if thou have | but little, yet study to give and to depart thereof gladly, for thou makest to thee thereof | good treasure and meed in |the day of necessity, for alms delivereth a man from all sin and from death, and | suffereth not his soul to |go in to darkness. Alms is a great sikerness tofore the high God unto all them that do | it. Beware, my son, keep |thee from all fornication, and suffer not thyself save with thy wife to know that sin; | and suffer never pride to | have domination in thy wit, ne in thy word, that sin was the beginning of all perdition.| Whosomever work to thee |any thing, anon yield to him his meed and hire, let never the hire of thy servant ne | meed of thy mercenary remain |in no wise with thee. That thou hatest to be done to thee of other, see that | thou never do to an other. |Eat thy bread with the hungry and needy, and cover the naked with thy clothes. Ordain | | |